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For instance, was the first year when only volunteers were accepted for the military service. Second Ivorian Civil War. Retrieved 13 August Governance and Border Security in Africa. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.
Old Jenne Djenne began to be settled around BCE, producing iron and with sizeable population, evidenced in crowded cemeteries. Living structures were made of sun-dried mud.
By BCE, Jenne was a large, thriving market town. The iron industry , in both smelting and forging for tools and weapons, appeared in Sub-Saharan Africa by BC, most likely in Egypt. By BC, contact had been made with the Mediterranean civilisations, including that of Carthage , and a regular trade in gold being conducted with the Sahara Berbers , as noted by Herodotus. The trade was fairly small until the camel was introduced, with Mediterranean goods being found in pits as far south as Northern Nigeria.
A profitable trade had developed by which West Africans exported gold, cotton cloth, metal ornaments, and leather goods north across the trans-Saharan trade routes, in exchange for copper, horses, salt, textiles, and beads. Later, ivory, slaves, and kola nuts were also traded. This civilization was located in the Niger River Valley in the country of Mali and is considered to be among the oldest urbanized centers and the best known archaeology site in sub-Saharan Africa.
This archaeological site is located about 3 kilometres 1. The site is believed to exceed 33 hectares 82 acres ; however this is yet to be confirmed with extensive survey work. With the help of archaeological excavations mainly by Susan and Roderick McIntosh, the site is known to have been occupied from B.
Previously, it was assumed that advanced trade networks and complex societies did not exist in the region until the arrival of traders from Southwest Asia. It was a highly centralised community. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in Nok culture in Africa at least by BC and possibly earlier, prior to BC. Based on stylistic similarities with the Nok terracottas, the bronze figurines of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife and the Bini kingdom of Benin are now believed to be continuations of the traditions of the earlier Nokite culture.
The prehistoric and ancient history of the Serer people of modern-day Senegambia has been extensively studied and documented over the years. Much of it comes from archaeological discoveries and Serer tradition rooted in the Serer religion.
Material relics were found in different Serer countries, most of which refer to the past origins of Serer families, villages and Serer Kingdoms, some of these Serer relics included gold , silver and metals. The known objects found in Serer countries are divided into two types, the remnants of earlier populations, and the laterite megaliths carved planted in circular structures with stones directed towards the east are found only in small parts of the ancient Serer kingdom of Saloum.
The Senegambian stone circles are megaliths found in Gambia north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal. The megaliths found in Senegal and Gambia are sometimes divided into four large sites: Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B. Archaeologists have also found pottery sherds, human burials, and some grave goods and metals. The construction of the stone monuments shows evidence of a prosperous and organised society based on the amount of labour required to build such structures.
The builders of these megaliths are unknown, but some believe that the Serer people are the builders. This hypothesis comes from the fact that the Serer still use funerary houses like those found at Wanar. The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of kingdoms or empires that were centred on the sahel , the area of grasslands south of the Sahara. The wealth of the states came from controlling the trade routes across the desert. Their power came from having large pack animals like camels and horses that were fast enough to keep a large empire under central control and were also useful in battle.
All of these empires were also quite decentralised with member cities having a great deal of autonomy. Ghana was first mentioned by Arab geographer Al-Farazi in the late 8th century. After , the empire expanded rapidly, coming to dominate the entire western Sudan; at its height, the empire could field an army of , soldiers. Ghana was inhabited by urban dwellers and rural farmers.
The urban dwellers were the administrators of the empire, who were Muslims, and the Ghana king , who practised traditional religion. The rural dwellers lived in villages, which joined together into broader polities that pledged loyalty to the Ghana.
The Ghana was viewed as divine, and his physical well-being reflected on the whole society. Ghana converted to Islam around , after conquering Aoudaghost. Ghana controlled access to the goldfields of Bambouk , southeast of Koumbi Saleh. A percentage of salt and gold going through its territory was taken.
The empire was not involved in production. In the 10th century, however, Islam was steadily growing in the region, and due to various influences, including internal dynastic struggles coupled with competing foreign interests namely Almoravid intervention. By the 11th century, Ghana was in decline. It was once thought that the sacking of Koumbi Saleh by Berbers under the Almoravid dynasty in was the cause.
This is no longer accepted. Several alternative explanations are cited. Another reason cited is political instability through rivalry among the different hereditary polities. The first successor to the Ghana Empire was that of the Sosso , a Takrur people who built their empire on the ruins of the old.
Sundiata continued his conquest from the fertile forests and Niger Valley, east to the Niger Bend, north into the Sahara, and west to the Atlantic Ocean, absorbing the remains of the Ghana Empire. Sundiata took on the title of mansa. He established the capital of his empire at Niani.
Although the salt and gold trade continued to be important to the Mali Empire, agriculture and pastoralism was also critical. The growing of sorghum , millet , and rice was a vital function. On the northern borders of the Sahel, grazing cattle, sheep, goats, and camels were major activities. Mande society was organised around the village and land. A cluster of villages was called a kafu , ruled by a farma. The farma paid tribute to the mansa.
A dedicated army of elite cavalry and infantry maintained order, commanded by the royal court. A formidable force could be raised from tributary regions, if necessary. Conversion to Islam was a gradual process. The power of the mansa depended on upholding traditional beliefs and a spiritual foundation of power. Sundiata initially kept Islam at bay.
Later mansas were devout Muslims but still acknowledged traditional deities and took part in traditional rituals and festivals, which were important to the Mande. Mansa Uli made a pilgrimage to Mecca , becoming recognised within the Muslim world. The court was staffed with literate Muslims as secretaries and accountants. Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta left vivid descriptions of the empire.
Mali reached the peak of its power and extent in the 14th century, when Mansa Musa — made his famous hajj to Mecca with slaves, each holding a bar of gold worth mithqal. He made a great impression on the minds of the Muslim and European world. He invited scholars and architects like Ishal al-Tuedjin al-Sahili to further integrate Mali into the Islamic world. The Mali Empire saw an expansion of learning and literacy. In , Sakura , a freed slave, usurped the throne. This mansa drove the Tuareg out of Timbuktu and established it as a center of learning and commerce.
The book trade increased, and book copying became a very respectable and profitable profession. Kankou Musa I founded a university at Timbuktu and instituted a programme of free health care and education for Malian citizens with the help of doctors and scholars brought back from his legendary hajj. After the reign of Mansa Suleyman — , Mali began its spiral downward.
Mossi cavalry raided the exposed southern border. Tuareg harassed the northern border to retake Timbuktu. Serer and Wolof alliances were broken. In to , the Songhai Empire took Niani. After , the empire lost the Bambouk goldfields and disintegrated into petty polities. Under the leadership of Sunni Ali r. The Songhai people are descended from fishermen on the Middle Niger River.
They established their capital at Kukiya in the 9th century CE and at Gao in the 12th century. The Songhai speak a Nilo-Saharan language. Sonni Ali , a Songhai, began his conquest by capturing Timbuktu in from the Tuareg.
He extended the empire to the north, deep into the desert, pushed the Mossi further south of the Niger, and expanded southwest to Djenne. His army consisted of cavalry and a fleet of canoes. Sonni Ali was not a Muslim, and he was portrayed negatively by Berber-Arab scholars, especially for attacking Muslim Timbuktu. After his death in , his heirs were deposed by General Muhammad Ture , a Muslim of Soninke origins.
Muhammad Ture — founded the Askiya Dynasty , askiya being the title of the king. He consolidated the conquests of Sonni Ali. Islam was used to extend his authority by declaring jihad on the Mossi, reviving the trans-Saharan trade, and having the Abbasid "shadow" caliph in Cairo declare him as caliph of Sudan. He established Timbuktu as a great center of Islamic learning. He brought the Hausa states into the Songhay trading network.
He further centralised the administration of the empire by selecting administrators from loyal servants and families and assigning them to conquered territories. They were responsible for raising local militias. Centralisation made Songhay very stable, even during dynastic disputes. Leo Africanus left vivid descriptions of the empire under Askiya Muhammad. Askiya Muhammad was deposed by his son in At the Battle of Tondibi , the Songhai army was defeated.
The Moroccans captured Djenne, Gao, and Timbuktu, but they were unable to secure the whole region. Askiya Nuhu and the Songhay army regrouped at Dendi in the heart of Songhai territory where a spirited guerrilla resistance sapped the resources of the Moroccans, who were dependent upon constant resupply from Morocco. Songhai split into several states during the 17th century. Morocco found its venture unprofitable. The gold trade had been diverted to Europeans on the coast.
Most of the trans-Saharan trade was now diverted east to Bornu. Expensive equipment purchased with gold had to be sent across the Sahara, an unsustainable scenario.
The Moroccans who remained married into the population and were referred to as Arma or Ruma. They established themselves at Timbuktu as a military caste with various fiefs, independent from Morocco. Amid the chaos, other groups began to assert themselves, including the Fulani of Futa Tooro who encroached from the west. The Bambara Empire , one of the states that broke from Songhai, sacked Gao.
In , the Tuareg massacred the Arma. The Fulani were migratory people. By the 14th century CE, they had converted to Islam. During the 16th century, they established themselves at Macina in southern Mali. During the s, they declared jihads on non-Muslims. The most important of these states was the Sokoto Caliphate or Fulani Empire. In the city of Gobir , Usman dan Fodio — accused the Hausa leadership of practising an impure version of Islam and of being morally corrupt.
In , he launched the Fulani War as a jihad among a population that was restless about high taxes and discontented with its leaders. Jihad fever swept northern Nigeria, with strong support among both the Fulani and the Hausa. Usman created an empire that included parts of northern Nigeria, Benin, and Cameroon, with Sokoto as its capital. He retired to teach and write and handed the empire to his son Muhammed Bello. The Sokoto Caliphate lasted until when the British conquered northern Nigeria.
The Akan speak a Kwa Language. Bonoman was a trading state created by the Abron people. It is generally accepted as the origin of the subgroups of the Akan people who migrated out of the state at various times to create new Akan states in search of gold.
The gold trade, which started to boom in Bonoman as early in the 12th century, was the genesis of Akan power and wealth in the region, beginning in the Middle Ages.
It was Bonoman and other Akan kingdoms like Denkyira , Akyem , Akwamu which were the predecessors to what became the all-powerful Empire of Ashanti. When and how the Ashante got to their present location is debatable. What is known is that by the 17th century an Akan people were identified as living in a state called Kwaaman. The location of the state was north of Lake Bosomtwe. But the sky and the mountains keep him there, and his alternating regrets and optimism spark his songwriting.
The old songs are forgotten Gone with the ravens on the wing And love no longer matters and the wind no long sings The old man sold his horses The children sold the ranch. The rain will come again some day The stars keep on shining The poets will return one day Magic melodies and rhyme And God is up there somewhere looking down on everything And love will always matter and the wolves will always sing.
Carnero Vaquero is a special Ian Tyson record. And Ian Tyson stares at the future with clear eyes and a weather-worn face. Bring it on, he seems to say. Have the drillers come? Have I waited too long? Cottonwood trees they cry to me Her songs of long ago And I slept in the sand far below Down where the clear waters flow. You Should Have Known, a digital-only single from legendary Canadian western singer-songwriter Ian Tyson, unapologetically celebrates the hard living, hard drinking, hard loving cowboy life.
Ten memorable songs with tunes you can remember, stories that resonate, and a resolute, strong voice. It sets the tone for his stories of the Canadian west. Doctors are writing half as many new opioid prescriptions Time.
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Van Doren at the launch of her new wine in Actress , model , singer , nightclub performer. RKO Radio Pictures. Two Tickets to Broadway.
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