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Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe. Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia inVictoria inthe Northern Territory was founded in when it was excised from South Australia. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be LP in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. Disco is a musical style originating in the early s. Disco was a key influence on the s electronic dance style called house. Tom Baker Complete This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification.
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Bumblebee DVD. My Neighbor Totoro. Sabrina, The Teenage Witch: The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes, the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans.
An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to — B. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in , Spain and Great Britain successively controlled Florida, and Spain ceded it to the United States in In , the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress, the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.
Miami is noted as the major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle, a local citrus grower. The Miami area was known as Biscayne Bay Country in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness, the area was also characterized as one of the finest building sites in Florida. The Great Freeze of —95 hastened Miamis growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the ones in Florida that survived.
Broadway theatre — Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in , William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager.
They established a theatre in Williamsburg, Virginia and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of , performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in , the Bowery Theatre opened in , followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the s, by the s, P.
Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan. In , at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In , Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in , booth played the role for a famous consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in , and would later revive the role at his own Booths Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences.
Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the — theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around , in , the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Broadways first long-run musical was a performance hit called The Elves in , New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of performances.
It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking performances. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between and , with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women.
West End of London — Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross. The West End covers much of the boroughs of Westminster and Camden, while the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city.
It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in which to rent office space and it was also close to the royal seat of power at Westminster, and is largely contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops. The areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, as the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate.
The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were also covered by the document but were treated as adjacent areas to the West End. This covers a area that defined by Glinert, Mayfair, Soho. The population of this ward at the Census was 10,, the New West End Company is a business improvement district and runs services including street cleaning and security on Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street. NWEC also runs the Red Caps service, the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London.
Australia — Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east.
Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50, years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January , the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.
Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states. The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in , to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.
On 12 December , Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in , the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians.
The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia. The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon.
He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early , the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement.
William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in , in , James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.
The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in , and it became a separate colony in The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in , Victoria in , the Northern Territory was founded in when it was excised from South Australia.
Europe — Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe had a population of about million as of Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization.
The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe.
Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in Captain Marvel D Ryan Fleck Dragon Trainer 3 Dean DeBlois.
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Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term rhythm and blues as a term in the United States in It replaced the term race music, which came from within the black community. The term rhythm and blues was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June until August , before the Rhythm and Blues name was instated, various record companies had already begun replacing the term race music with sepia series.
Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm, according to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the s through the s, arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow, lilting, while singers are emotionally engaged with the lyrics, often intensely so, they remain cool, relaxed, and in control.
The bands dressed in suits, and even uniforms, an associated with the modern popular music that rhythm. Lyrics often seemed fatalistic, and the music typically followed predictable patterns of chords, there was also increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone.
Soul music — Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the United States in the late s and early s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues, Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown, Atlantic and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement.
Soul also became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music, catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and a tense vocal sound. The style also occasionally uses improvisational additions, twirls and auxiliary sounds, Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black, Soul music dominated the U. By , the music genre had begun to splinter. Some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, by the early s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul.
The United States saw the development of neo soul around , there are also several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music. The term soul had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States, according to another source, Soul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the 60s.
The phrase soul music itself, referring to music with secular lyrics, is first attested in The term soul in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American pride, gospel groups in the s and s occasionally used the term as part of their name.
The jazz style that derived from gospel came to be called soul jazz, important innovators whose recordings in the s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, and Etta James. Ray Charles is often cited as popularizing the genre with his string of hits starting with s I Got a Woman.
Singer Bobby Womack said, Ray was the genius and he turned the world onto soul music. Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style, little Richard and James Brown were equally influential. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are also acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the singer of gospel group The Soul Stirrers. It was founded in , evolving from an enterprise named the American Graphophone Company.
Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the sound business. Columbia Records went on to release records by an array of singers, instrumentalists. It is one of Sony Musics three flagship record labels alongside RCA Records and Epic Records, rather, as above, it was connected to CBS, a broadcasting media company which had purchased the company in , and had been co-founded in by Columbia Records itself.
The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in by stenographer, lawyer and New Jersey native Edward Easton and it derived its name from the District of Columbia, where it was headquartered.
At first it had a monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington. As was the custom of some of the regional companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own. Columbias ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in with the North American Phonograph Companys breakup, thereafter it sold only records and phonographs of its own manufacture. In , Columbia introduced the XP record, a brown wax record.
According to Gracyk, the molded brown waxes may have sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in , preceded only by their Toy Graphophone of For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its catalog of artists. The firm also introduced the internal-horn Grafonola to compete with the extremely popular Victrola sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company, during this era, Columbia used the famous Magic Notes logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas.
Columbia was split into two companies, one to make records and one to make players, Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, and Ed Easton went with it. Eventually it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation, in late , Columbia went into receivership. Brotherhood of Man — Brotherhood of Man are a British pop group who achieved success in the s. They won the Eurovision Song Contest with Save Your Kisses for Me, created in by songwriter and record producer Tony Hiller, Brotherhood of Man was initially an umbrella title for a frequently-changing line-up of session singers.
Early on, they scored a hit with the song United We Stand. They achieved perhaps their biggest success in their native UK with three number one singles and four top twenty albums, the group under this line-up still continues today, performing shows throughout Europe.
Altogether, they have released 16 studio albums, with sales topping 15 million records. The two female members, Glover and Leslie were an act in their own right, releasing singles as Sue, the group came together in and began recording some songs with Hiller. The single became a Top 20 hit in the UK, Canada, the song has since been used as the closing theme for televisions Brady Bunch Hour and as an anthem for various causes.
Goodison left the group at the beginning of and was replaced by American singer Hal Atkinson and they had one more minor hit in the US, but experienced no further success in the UK and were eventually dropped by their record company. Keen to keep the name alive, Hiller set about putting a new line up together. In he got together a trio of singers, Martin Lee, Nicky Stevens. Sheriden was already known to Hiller as a songwriter and had a solo career, Lee had a solo single to his name and was a budding songwriter.
Stevens had been trained, but had since adapted her vocals and was performing as a cabaret singer. Republic of Ireland — Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.
The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom.
It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. It was officially declared a republic in , following the Republic of Ireland Act , Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
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