Label: Immediate - L 36776 Format: Vinyl LP, Compilation Country: Australia Genre: Rock, Blues, Pop
Lawrence, Harold; "Mercury Living Presence". This page was last edited on 12 Marchat The Platinum Collection: A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. LPs pressed in multicolored vinyl Sotano Beat:
Joni A Birthday Celebration. The Verdict. Patty Griffin. Distance Over Time. Weezer Black Album. Bridges Live: South Of Reality. Head Above Water. I, The Mask. Hell Freezes Over Remastered. Hexed 3 bonus track. Gold in a Brass Age. The Wings of War. Most wished for Previous page. The Dark Side of the Moon. Abbey Road. So, the entire representation of Nielsen is skewed to just a particular sub-market within vinyl sales.
The future: This is problematic as people tend to move on to something else and get used to streaming the record, might wait to see it used somewhere as opposed to buying it at a shop. Also, I think everyone in the Discogs community knows vinyl sales never really went away. We can debate why vinyl keeps surviving these onslaughts, is it actual vs perceived sound quality, the collectible nature, the intangible cool factor, but the fact remains, records simply will not go away.
Even during those eras when it was being forced out to a large degree by newer formats, a hardcore collector market remained and was still actively buying and selling vinyl.
Having said that, I do think certain segments of the vinyl market are not sustainable. As someone who buys some of these products, I can tell you that a large percentage of these titles end up being drastically discounted several months down the road when retailers need to purge dead inventory. But there will always be people who want to hold an album in their hands, put it on a physical player and kick back with the liner notes and album art.
Those folks will be listening to vinyl for a very long time. As for record of the year, [was pretty epic] with albums by King Krule , The XX and milo all being strong contenders. The production is just immaculate, perfectly balancing strings, horns, vocals and even some electronic elements into a coherent and lush whole. And lyrically the guy is just going for it, a truly scathing critique of modern culture and his own role in it.
I was a big fan of I Love You, Honeybear , but he really took it to another level with this one, at the risk of alienating a lot of people as well, which in my mind really paid off. I think that the popularity of vinyl has reached a certain saturation point. People that originally liked vinyl will continue to love the format from now on.
However, it is skeptical as to whether people who have newly purchased analogs in recent years, especially those who find value as things, will continue to be interested in vinyl as a format. Also, to realize the goodness of vinyl, listening in a proper environment is also important, so I think that the height of hurdles to having players is a problem to be cleared up. Our own customers continuously debate digital vs.
For many music enthusiasts, vinyl is a format that will never go away. While it may not be a go-to source of music for the masses, more people are discovering the pleasure of vinyl. It is cherished both for its musical quality, as well as its romanticized experience. It simply feels good to play a record. The tactile experience, the ritual, the deliberateness of everything, all make for something more than having a playlist on shuffle streaming.
In terms of the future of the format, there are still many music enthusiasts who are discovering the format, and instantly getting hooked on that experience. On our end, we are projecting solid growth in our turntable category. People are always researching components, specifications, placement, anything to enhance the audio experience. Known for past releases on Wild Oats, The Trilogy Tapes and Third Ear and indeed DBA the producer has been consistently working away on his own takes on house, techno, boogie and funk with an ever growing fanbase.
Digital sound argument. It is notable, however, that one technical advantage with vinyl compared to the optical CD is that if correctly handled and stored, the vinyl record will be playable for centuries, [ citation needed ] which is longer than some versions of the optical CD.
Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction. CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.
Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble. Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus.
This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the control signal restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as just above 0.
Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter.
Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel. If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced. High frequency hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and dirt and dust on the vinyl produces popping and ticking sounds.
The latter can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback. Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.
With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard.
During recording the amplitude of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the amplitude at high frequencies is increased. The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the high frequency noise.
Thus more music will fit on the record, and noise is reduced. The current standard is called RIAA equalization. It was agreed upon in and implemented in the United States in ; it was not widely used in other countries until the s.
Prior to that, especially from , some different formulae were used by the record manufacturers. In Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased. Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove.
When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary. Miller in reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.
West in and later P. This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of Western Electric licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.
Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard. Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor.
Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions. When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike. The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve.
This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers. If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization.
RCA Victor and Columbia were in a market war concerning which recorded format was going to win: Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R.
Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years. It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s.
Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Caruso , a famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism.
There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances.
Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording which developed during the time that early radio was becoming popular benefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios.
The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement.
Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.
It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type.
Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio.
Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era. Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems. There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. In the early s Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric announced the total reinvention of disc recording: The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback.
The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback.
Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering.
Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.
Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia in , came from wide range radio transcription practices. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records.
Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.
At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD in , the stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players.
There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing. Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis.
For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio. From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tape , which could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc.
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft wax , and later a harder lacquer was used. The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation. As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible.
They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer.
However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters. As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.
This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. Scott , who died September 22, , at the age of Research began in , was suspended during World War II, and then resumed in Three ten-inch series were released: When the LP was introduced in , the 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records. By , 78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales.
Canada and the UK continued production into , while India, the Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s until , with the last holdout, Argentina, continuing until The popularity of the LP ushered in the " Album Era " of English-language popular music, beginning in the s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums. Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late s with the advent of Compact Cassettes , and later compact discs , the LP survives as a format to the present day.
Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early s. It was introduced by RCA Victor in To compete with the LP, boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP Extended Play 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side.
Despite these efforts, the 45 succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the format for singles. This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP, pressed on grainless red vinyl. Today AP-1 through AP-5 are very scarce. By very tightly packing the fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side was achieved.
Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market. Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids. However, the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems.
By , cassettes were outselling LPs in the US. The Compact Disc CD was introduced in It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches.
At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles. But prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as " vinyl ".
Since the late s there has been a renewed interest in vinyl . When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of 45 minutes, divided over two sides, with inch versions carrying a maximum of 35 minutes again over two sides. Soundtracks could no longer fit onto the mere 5 minutes per side that 78s offered. They were not an immediate success, however, as they were released during the height of the Great Depression, and seemed frivolous to the many impoverished of the time.
Owing to marketing attitudes at the time, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music appeared only on inch records. Executives believed classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
Their beliefs were wrong. Ten-inch records reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. In , Columbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side. The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time.
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