Label: Psycho Planet Communications - PP004CD Format: CD Country: Japan Genre: Electronic Style: Techno
The U. Archived from the original on July 24, For example:. If you have a name that ends in "s," or if you will observe home-made signs selling tomatoes or chili-and-beans, you will quickly note what can be done with a possessive apostrophe in reckless hands. As RAM stands for Random Access Memory, it works more or less like a hard-drive and was designed for corporate back-up use. McAlister Rara!:
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Archived from the original on Retrieved December June Seven Times The Capacity". Retrieved 30 December Video help. DVD bitsetting". CD freaks review. Archived from the original on July 24, TEAC Corporation. Retrieved 30 January TG daily. Optical Storage Technology Association. Library of Congress.
Archived from the original PDF on Victor Company of Japan, Ltd. Retrieved from " https: Audiovisual introductions in DVD Computer-related introductions in Hidden categories: This contract was competitively procured as a small business set-aside procurement via the Navy Electronic Commerce Online website, with 16 proposals received. These seven contractors may compete for task orders under the terms and conditions of the awarded contracts.
Kaman Precision Products Inc. The contract modification is for the purchase of an additional 15, fuzes being produced under the basic contract. Work will be performed in Orlando, Florida; and Middletown, Connecticut, and is expected to be completed by June 1, Work is expected to be completed by Dec. McRae Industries Inc. Location of performance is North Carolina, with a Nov. Exceptions are accounted for in the same way: No apostrophe is used in the following possessive pronouns and adjectives: All other possessive pronouns ending in s do take an apostrophe: With plural forms, the apostrophe follows the s , as with nouns: Kingsley Amis , on being challenged to produce a sentence whose meaning depended on a possessive apostrophe, came up with:.
This subsection deals with singular nouns pronounced with a sibilant sound at the end: The spelling of these ends with -s , -se , -z , -ze , -ce , -x , or -xe. Many respected authorities recommend that practically all singular nouns, including those ending with a sibilant sound, have possessive forms with an extra s after the apostrophe so that the spelling reflects the underlying pronunciation. Rules that modify or extend the standard principle have included the following:.
Although less common, some contemporary writers still follow the older practice of omitting the second s in all cases ending with a sibilant, but usually not when written -x or -xe. Similar examples of notable names ending in an s that are often given a possessive apostrophe with no additional s include Dickens and Williams. For more details on practice with geographic names, see the relevant section below.
Some writers like to reflect standard spoken practice in cases like these with sake: This punctuation is preferred in major style guides.
The informal majority view 5—4, based on past writings of the justices as of [update] favoured the additional s , but a strong minority disagrees. The English possessive of French nouns ending in a silent s , x , or z is addressed by various style guides.
Similar examples with x or z: The same principles and residual uncertainties apply with "naturalised" English words, like Illinois and Arkansas. For possessive plurals of words ending in silent x , z or s , the few authorities that address the issue at all typically call for an added s and suggest that the apostrophe precede the s: Guides typically seek a principle that will yield uniformity, even for foreign words that fit awkwardly with standard English punctuation.
Place names in the United States do not use the possessive apostrophe on federal maps and signs. These names were mainly fixed in form many years before grammatical rules were fully standardised. Modern usage has been influenced by considerations of technological convenience including the economy of typewriter ribbons and films, and similar computer character "disallowance" which tend to ignore past standards.
Sometimes the apostrophe is omitted in the names of clubs, societies, and other organizations, even though the standard principles seem to require it: Usage is variable and inconsistent.
Style guides typically advise consulting an official source for the standard form of the name as one would do if uncertain about other aspects of the spelling of the name ; some tend towards greater prescriptiveness, for or against such an apostrophe. In recent times there has been an increasing tendency to drop the apostrophe.
Names based on a first name are more likely to take an apostrophe, but this is not always the case. Some business names may inadvertently spell a different name if the name with an s at the end is also a name, such as Parson.
A small activist group called the Apostrophe Protection Society  has campaigned for large retailers such as Harrods, Currys , and Selfridges to reinstate their missing punctuation. Barclays is no longer associated with the family name. Use of the apostrophe may be recommended only for lowercase letters.
Some specific cases:. For abbreviations, acronyms, etc. Names that are not strictly native to English sometimes have an apostrophe substituted to represent other characters see also As a mark of elision , below.
In transliterated foreign words, an apostrophe may be used to separate letters or syllables that otherwise would likely be interpreted incorrectly. For example:. Furthermore, an apostrophe may be used to indicate a glottal stop in transliterations. If you have a name that ends in "s," or if you will observe home-made signs selling tomatoes or chili-and-beans, you will quickly note what can be done with a possessive apostrophe in reckless hands.
Failure to observe standard use of the apostrophe is widespread and frequently criticised as incorrect,   often generating heated debate. The practice, once common and acceptable see Historical development , comes from the identical sound of the plural and possessive forms of most English nouns. It is often criticised as a form of hypercorrection coming from a widespread ignorance of the proper use of the apostrophe or of punctuation in general.
Truss says this usage is no longer considered proper in formal writing. The term is believed to have been coined in the middle of the 20th century by a teacher of languages working in Liverpool , at a time when such mistakes were common in the handwritten signs and advertisements of greengrocers e. Some have argued that its use in mass communication by employees of well-known companies has led to the less literate assuming it to be standard and adopting the habit themselves.
The same use of apostrophe before noun plural -s forms is sometimes made by non-native speakers of English. This often produces so-called " Dunglish " errors when carried over into English. In , a resident in Royal Tunbridge Wells was accused of vandalism by one neighbour after he painted apostrophes on road signs that had spelled the street name as St Johns Close.
UK supermarket chain Tesco omits the mark where standard practice would require it. Signs in Tesco advertise among other items "mens magazines", "girls toys", "kids books" and "womens shoes". In his book Troublesome Words , author Bill Bryson lambastes Tesco for this, stating that "the mistake is inexcusable, and those who make it are linguistic Neanderthals.
George Bernard Shaw , a proponent of English spelling reform on phonetic principles, argued that the apostrophe was mostly redundant. He did not use it for spelling cant , hes , etc. The name comes from the Scouse slang for lads. The over-use of apostrophes in names in fantasy literature was satirised by Neal Stephenson in Reamde. Over the years, the use of apostrophes has been criticised. George Bernard Shaw called them "uncouth bacilli", referring to the apostrophe-like shape of many bacteria.
In his book American Speech , linguist Steven Byington stated of the apostrophe that "the language would be none the worse for its abolition". Adrian Room, in his English Journal article "Axing the Apostrophe", argued that apostrophes are unnecessary, and context will resolve any ambiguity. Wells , emeritus professor of phonetics at University College London , says the apostrophe is "a waste of time". In many languages, especially European languages, the apostrophe is used to indicate the elision of one or more sounds, as in English.
Several languages and transliteration systems use the apostrophe or some similar mark to indicate a glottal stop , sometimes considering it a letter of the alphabet:. The apostrophe represents sounds resembling the glottal stop in the Turkic languages and in some romanizations of Semitic languages , including Arabic and Hebrew. In typography, this function may be performed by the closing single quotation mark.
Some languages and transliteration systems use the apostrophe to mark the presence, or the lack of, palatalization:. Some languages use the apostrophe to separate the root of a word and its affixes , especially if the root is foreign and unassimilated. For another kind of morphemic separation see pinyin , below. The form of the apostrophe originates in manuscript writing, as a point with a downwards tail curving clockwise. Later sans-serif typefaces had stylised apostrophes with a more geometric or simplified form, but usually retaining the same directional bias as a closing quotation mark.
This is known as the typewriter apostrophe or vertical apostrophe. The same convention was adopted for quotation marks. However, although these are widely used due to their ubiquity and convenience, they are deprecated in contexts where proper typography is important. Unicode defines three apostrophe characters: As such, it is a highly overloaded character. In ASCII, it represents a left single quotation mark , right single quotation mark, apostrophe, vertical line or prime punctuation marks , or an acute accent modifier letters.
This allowed a more typographic appearance of text: This can still be seen in many documents prepared at that time, and is still used in the TeX typesetting system to create typographic quotes. Both sets also used this code point for a closing single quote. There is no such character in ISO Due to "smart quotes" in Microsoft software converting the ASCII apostrophe to this value, other software makers have been effectively forced to adopt this as a de facto convention.
The typewriter apostrophe has always been considered tolerable on Web pages because of the egalitarian nature of Web publishing, the low resolution of computer monitors in comparison to print, and legacy limitations provided by ASCII.
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