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Holy scriptures. An Encyclopedia. Flowjob - "Wicked Hills" - 7: Rama Navami. Article When is Diwali Deepavali? Palgrave Macmillan. Releases This Week.
Originated by Madiki Singa, the Madhura Bhakti "bridal attitude to God" style melds bhakti rasa, melody and poetic fervor.
Sampradaya bhajans, native to southern India include both Kirtanas songs and Namavalis song cycles to several gods sung in a specific order. Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand.
Building on Traditions. Popularity With the Masses. Are Bhajans an Expression of Fundamentalism? Bhajan Examples. Listen to Top Shiva Bhajans.
Ten Best Morning Bhajans. Five Nirguni Style Bhajans. The ancient sage Valmiki used these morphemes in his Ramayana similes as in sections 3. This coincides with one of the four Navratri on the Hindu calendar , in the spring season, namely the Vasantha Navratri.
The ancient epic Ramayana states in the Balakhanda that Rama and his brothers were born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya , a city on the banks of Sarayu River. The Jain texts are dated variously, but generally pre CE, most likely sometime within the first five centuries of the common era.
The kingdom of Kosala is also mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina texts, as one of the sixteen Maha janapadas of ancient India, and as an important center of pilgrimage for Jains and Buddhists.
Rama had three brothers, according to the Balakhanda section of the Ramayana. These were Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna. Rama is portrayed as a polite, self-controlled, virtuous youth always ready to help others. His education included the Vedas , the Vedangas as well as the martial arts. The years when Rama grew up are described in much greater detail by later Hindu texts, such as the Ramavali by Tulsidas. The template is similar to those found for Krishna , but in the poems of Tulsidas, Rama is milder and reserved introvert, rather than the prank-playing extrovert personality of Krishna.
Rama wins the contest, whereby Janaka agrees to the marriage of Sita and Rama. While Rama and his brothers were away, Kaikeyi , the mother of Bharata and the second wife of king Dasharatha, reminds the king that he had promised long ago to comply with one thing she asks, anything.
Dasharatha remembers and agrees to do so. She demands that Rama be exiled for fourteen years to Dandaka forest. Her son Bharata, and other family members become upset at her demand. Rama states that his father should keep his word, adds that he does not crave for earthly or heavenly material pleasures, neither seeks power nor anything else.
He talks about his decision with his wife and tells everyone that time passes quickly. Sita leaves with him to live in the forest, the brother Lakshmana joins them in their exile as the caring close brother. Rama heads outside the Kosala kingdom, crosses Yamuna river and initially stays at Chitrakuta, on the banks of river Mandakini, in the hermitage of sage Vasishtha.
The region has numerous Rama temples and is an important Vaishnava pilgrimage site. After ten years of wandering and struggles, Rama arrives at Panchavati, on the banks of river Godavari.
This region had numerous demons rakshashas. One day, a demoness called Shurpanakha saw Rama, became enamored of him, and tried to seduce him. Shurpanakha retaliated by threatening Sita.
Lakshmana, the younger brother protective of his family, in turn retaliated by cutting off the nose and ears of Shurpanakha. The cycle of violence escalated, ultimately reaching demon king Ravana, who was the brother of Shurpanakha. Ravana comes to Panchavati to take revenge on behalf of his family, sees Sita, gets attracted, and kidnaps Sita to his kingdom of Lanka believed to be modern Sri Lanka.
Their struggles now reach new heights. They travel south, meet Sugriva, marshall an army of monkeys, and attract dedicated commanders such as Hanuman who is a minister of Sugriva. Sita refuses him. Ravana is enraged. Rama ultimately reaches Lanka, fights in a war that has many ups and downs, but ultimately Rama prevails, kills Ravana and forces of evil, and rescues his wife Sita.
They return to Ayodhya. The return of Rama to Ayodhya is celebrated with his coronation. It is called Rama pattabhisheka , and his rule itself as Rama rajya described to be a just and fair rule. Rama responds to public gossip by renouncing his wife, and asking her to undergo a test before Agni fire. She does, and passes the test. Rama and Sita live happily together in Ayodhya, have twin sons named Luv and Kush, in the Ramayana and other major texts.
Through death, he joins her in afterlife. While there is a common foundation, plot, grammar and an essential core of values associated with a battle between good and evil, there is neither a correct version nor a single verifiable ancient one.
According to Paula Richman, there are hundreds of versions of "the story of Rama in India, southeast Asia and beyond". The stories vary in details, particularly where the moral question is clear, but the appropriate ethical response is unclear or disputed. In the Indian tradition, states Richman, the social value is that "a warrior must never harm a woman". Similarly, there are numerous and very different versions to how Rama deals with rumors against Sita when they return victorious to Ayodhya, given that the rumors can neither be objectively investigated nor summarily ignored.
The variation and inconsistencies are not limited to the texts found in the Hinduism traditions. The Rama story in the Jainism tradition also show variation by author and region, in details, in implied ethical prescriptions and even in names — the older versions using the name Padma instead of Rama, while the later Jain texts just use Rama.
The historicity of Rama, and when he lived in case he indeed reflected a real individual, is a disputed subject with wide variation among authors. In some Hindu texts, Rama is stated to have lived in the Treta yuga or Dvapar yuga that their authors estimate existed before about 5, BCE, while a few others place Rama to have lived in , 67 or 8 BCE.
According to Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia , an Indian archaeologist , who specialised in Proto- and Ancient Indian history, this is all "pure speculation". According to Arthur Bonner, "what may have happened" is that some early Gupta Empire king built his capital on Sarayu river, called this new city as Ayodhya, claimed that Rama was born "millions of years earlier" on this exact spot so as to link his dynasty with the gods, and this belief got widely accepted in India after the Gupta Empire ended.
Rama iconography shares elements of Vishnu avatars, but has several distinctive elements. It never has more than two hands, he holds or has nearby a bana arrow in his right hand, while he holds the dhanus bow in his left. He is shown black, blue or dark color, typically wearing reddish color clothes. If his wife and brother are a part of the iconography, Lakshamana is on his left side while Sita always on the right of Rama, both of golden-yellow complexion.
According to Sheldon Pollock, the life of Rama as told in the Indian texts is a masterpiece that offers a framework to represent, conceptualize and comprehend the world and the nature of life.
Like major epics and religious stories around the world, it has been of vital relevance because it "tells the culture what it is". In the Indian traditions, particularly Rama, the story is about a divine human, a mortal god, incorporating both into the exemplar who transcends both humans and gods. A superior being does not render evil for evil, this is the maxim one should observe; the ornament of virtuous persons is their conduct.
A noble soul will ever exercise compassion even towards those who enjoy injuring others. Roderick Hindery . As a person, Rama personifies the characteristics of an ideal person purushottama. Rama is considered a maryada purushottama or the best of upholders of Dharma. According to Rodrick Hindery, Book 2, 6 and 7 are notable for ethical studies. Second, he emphasizes through what he says and what he does a union of "self-consciousness and action" to create an "ethics of character".
Rama also adds, such as in section 4. The followers of Madhvacharya believe that an older version of the Ramayana , the mula-Ramayana , previously existed. The Madhva tradition considers it to have been more authoritative than the version by Valmiki. The epic is found across India, in different languages and cultural traditions.
Adhyatma Ramayana is a late medieval Sanskrit text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana. The text represents Rama as the Brahman metaphysical reality , mapping all attributes and aspects of Rama to abstract virtues and spiritual ideals.
The Ramayana is a Sanskrit text, while Ramacharitamanasa retells the Ramayana in a vernacular dialect of Hindi language,  commonly understood in northern India.
Tulsidas was inspired by Adhyatma Ramayana , where Rama and other characters of the Valmiki Ramayana along with their attributes saguna narrative were transposed into spiritual terms and abstract rendering of an Atma soul, self, Brahman without attributes nirguna reality. It inspires the audience to view their own lives from a spiritual plane, encouraging the virtuous to keep going, and comforting those oppressed with a healing balm.
The Ramacharitmanas is notable for being the Rama-based play commonly performed every year in autumn, during the weeklong performance arts festival of Ramlila. Christopher Chapple . Yoga Vasistha is a Sanskrit text structured as a conversation between young Prince Rama and sage Vasistha who was called as the first sage of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy by Adi Shankara.
The Yoga Vasistha text consists of six books. Yoga Vasistha is considered one of the most important texts of the Vedantic philosophy. Another historically and chronologically important text is Raghuvamsa authored by Kalidasa.
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