Label: Culture Shock (4) - none Series: Culture Shock Series - Volume 6 Format: CD Compilation, Promo Country: US Genre: Electronic, Hip Hop, Rock, Funk / Soul, Pop Style: Dance-pop
Information gathered by the paper indicated that: Wings Of Joy reissue. Echospace US. His first starring role was in the film Juice. Volume 1 was certified Gold.
At this stage, the vital organs have failed and the shock can no longer be reversed. Brain damage and cell death are occurring, and death will occur imminently. One of the primary reasons that shock is irreversible at this point is that much cellular ATP has been degraded into adenosine in the absence of oxygen as an electron receptor in the mitochondrial matrix.
Adenosine easily perfuses out of cellular membranes into extracellular fluid, furthering capillary vasodilation , and then is transformed into uric acid. The first change seen in shock is an increased cardiac output followed by a decrease in mixed venous oxygen saturation SmvO2 as measured in the pulmonary artery via a pulmonary artery catheter. Central venous oxygen saturation ScvO2 as measured via a central line correlates well with SmvO2 and are easier to acquire. If shock progresses anaerobic metabolism will begin to occur with an increased blood lactic acid as the result.
While many laboratory tests are typically performed there is no test that either makes or excludes the diagnosis. A chest X-ray or emergency department ultrasound may be useful to determine volume state. The best evidence exists for the treatment of septic shock in adults and as the pathophysiology appears similar in children and other types of shock treatment this has been extrapolated to these areas.
Oxygen supplementation, intravenous fluids, passive leg raising not Trendelenburg position should be started and blood transfusions added if blood loss is severe. Aggressive intravenous fluids are recommended in most types of shock e. For those with haemorrhagic shock the current evidence supports limiting the use of fluids for penetrating thorax and abdominal injuries allowing mild hypotension to persist known as permissive hypotension.
Vasopressors may be used if blood pressure does not improve with fluids. There is no evidence of substantial superiority of one vasopressor over another; however, using dopamine leads to an increased risk of arrythmia when compared with norepinephrine.
The goal of treatment is to achieve a urine output of greater than 0. In trauma the goal is to stop the bleeding which in many cases requires surgical interventions. The prognosis of shock depends on the underlying cause and the nature and extent of concurrent problems. Hypovolemic, anaphylactic and neurogenic shock are readily treatable and respond well to medical therapy. In Hinshaw and Cox suggested the classification system for shock which is still used today.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Shock. Main articles: Hypovolemia and Hypovolemic shock. Main article: Septic shock. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. February Pearson Education Limited. American College of Surgeons. Elsevier Health Sciences. Emergency Medicine Australasia. Circulatory Shock and Physiology of Its Treatment". In Gruliow, Rebecca. Textbook of Medical Physiology 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.
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Bohemian Rhapsody. Look Up Child. Wasteland, Baby! Weezer Teal Album. Golden Hour. A Star Is Born Soundtrack. Still On My Mind. This Land. Live In Hollywood. Shakur asserted that he would not board the plane unless accompanied by Buckshot and was described by the fellow rapper as looking "discomforted" while they recorded a song together in a studio after Shakur "tore up the plane tickets".
During an August 15, , appearance at the Brotherhood Crusade Rally, which featured several artists discussing the importance of voting, Shakur compared the sales of Death Row records to voters in the U.
Shakur, with the three New Jersey rappers and other associates, formed the original lineup of the Outlawz. Hussein Fatal , Napoleon , E. They later dropped the Immortal part of their name after the untimely deaths of Shakur and Yaki Kadafi and moved on as Outlawz without the members of Thug Life.
The idea behind the group was for each member to have a rap name coinciding with the names of various tyrants or enemies of America, past, and present. He mentioned Makaveli Records a few times before his death. This was supposed to be a music label for up-and-coming artists that Shakur had an interest in developing or potentially signing, and his own future projects would have been published through it as well.
In addition to his endeavors in the music industry, Shakur acted in films. He made his first film appearance in Nothing but Trouble , as part of a cameo by the Digital Underground. His first starring role was in the film Juice. After his death, three more completed films featuring Shakur were released: In , Hughes said Shakur would have outshone the other actors had he been in the film, "because he was bigger than the movie. The Phantom Menace. The role ultimately went to Samuel L.
Director John Singleton mentioned that he wrote the script for his film Baby Boy with Shakur in mind for the lead role. A student of the Baltimore School for the Arts where he studied theater, Shakur understood the Shakespearean psychology of inter-gang wars and inter-cultural conflict.
During a interview, Shakur said: He wrote some of the rawest stories, man. I mean look at Romeo and Juliet. You got this guy Romeo from the Bloods who falls for Juliet , a female from the Crips , and everybody in both gangs is against them. So they have to sneak out and they end up dead for nothing. Real tragic stuff. And look how Shakespeare busts it up with Macbeth.
After he commits the murder, the dude starts having delusions just like in a Scarface song. In an interview in Spain, American music journalist Chuck Philips said that what impressed him the most about Shakur was that he was a poet.
I liked their attitude. It was protest music in a way nobody had ever thought about before. Tupac had so many sides. He was unafraid to write about his vulnerabilities. On this initial release, Shakur helped extend the success of such rap groups as Boogie Down Productions , Public Enemy , X-Clan , and Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five , as he became one of the first major socially conscious rappers from the West Coast.
He also showed his compassionate side with the anthem "Keep Ya Head Up", while simultaneously putting his legendary aggressiveness on display with the title track from the album Strictly 4 My N.
He added a salute to his former group Digital Underground by including them on the playful track "I Get Around". Throughout his career, Shakur expressed an increasingly aggressive attitude on his subsequent albums.
Shakur described All Eyez on Me as a celebration of life, and the album was critically and commercially successful. Many analysts currently describe him as a deist. Shakur had several family members who were members of the Black Panthers: Shakur publicly spoke out against interracial marriage in an interview with Source magazine in ,  but later retracted these comments.
He particularly reacted when people questioned his commitment to the black community and the West Coast. He wore a green tank-top on the night of his death. Shakur lived with Kidada Jones , his girlfriend, daughter of Quincy Jones and actress Peggy Lipton , for several months until his death. Jones was waiting for Shakur in their Las Vegas hotel room when she was notified that he was shot. She rushed to the hospital and remained with him until he died from his injuries six days later.
On August 22, , in Marin City, Shakur performed at an outdoor festival and stayed for an hour afterward signing autographs and pictures. A confrontation occurred and Shakur drew a legally registered Colt Mustang , and allegedly dropped it. As it was picked up by a member of his entourage, a bullet was discharged. Although the police matched the bullet to a.
Marin County prosecutors have said they were stymied by a lack of witnesses. On April 5, , Shakur was charged with one count of felonious assault.
He was accused of attempting to hit rapper Chauncey Wynn from the group M. The incident reportedly began when Shakur became angry and threw a microphone. Shakur pleaded guilty on September 14, , to a misdemeanor in exchange for the dismissal of the felonious-assault charge. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail, 20 of which were suspended, and ordered to perform 35 hours of community service. In October , in Atlanta , two brothers and off-duty police officers, Mark and Scott Whitwell, were with their wives celebrating Mrs.
The officers were drunk and in possession of stolen guns. As they crossed the street, a car with Shakur inside passed them or "almost struck them". The Whitwells argued with the driver, Shakur, and the other passengers, who were joined by a second passing car. Shakur shot one officer in the buttocks and the other in the leg, back, or abdomen, according to varying news reports.
Shakur was charged with the shooting. Prosecutors dropped all charges against the parties. In November , Shakur and others were charged with sexual assaulting a woman in a hotel room. Shakur denied the charges. According to Shakur, he had prior relations days earlier with the woman which were consensual the woman testified she performed consensual oral sex on Shakur.
At trial, Shakur was convicted of first-degree sexual abuse, and acquitted of the weapons and sodomy charges. After serving nine months of his sentence,  Shakur was released from the Clinton Correctional Facility on October 12, On the night of November 30, , the day before the verdict in his sexual abuse trial was to be announced, Shakur was robbed and shot five times by three men in the lobby of Quad Recording Studios in Manhattan. In the day that followed, he entered the courthouse in a wheelchair in the verdict hearing for his sexual abuse trial.
He was found guilty of three counts of molestation and found not guilty of six other charges, including sodomy, stemming from his arrest.
Vibe changed the names of the accused assailants upon publication. Shakur began serving his prison sentence on sexual-assault charges at Clinton Correctional Facility on February 14, Shakur became the first artist to have an album at number one on the Billboard while serving a prison sentence.
Me Against the World made its debut on the Billboard and stayed at the top of the charts for four weeks. The album sold , copies in its first week, setting a record for highest first-week sales for a solo male rap artist at the time. While serving his sentence, Shakur married his long-time girlfriend, Keisha Morris, on April 4, ; the couple divorced in Shakur stated that he married her "for the wrong reasons".
The album presents a stark contrast to previous works. Throughout the album, Shakur continues to focus on the themes of pain and aggression, making this album one of the emotionally darker works of his career.
While in prison, Shakur wrote to Death Row Uncut director Nina Bhadreshwar about his plans to begin a "new chapter" of his life. At PDT , they were halted on Las Vegas Boulevard by Metro bicycle police for playing the car stereo too loudly and not having license plates. Someone inside rapidly fired gunshots at Shakur. He was hit four times, twice in the chest, once in the arm, and once in the thigh. According to an interview with music video director Gobi, while at the hospital, Shakur received news from a Death Row marketing employee that the shooters had called the record company and threatened Shakur.
At the hospital, Shakur was heavily sedated, placed on life-support machines, and ultimately was put under a barbiturate - induced coma to keep him in the bed.
Some of his ashes were purportedly later mixed with marijuana and smoked by members of the Outlawz. Mean claimed in a interview that the ashes did not belong to Shakur. His fifth album, The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory , was released two months later, and numerous other posthumous albums followed.
Information gathered by the paper indicated that: Orlando Anderson , the Crip whom Shakur had attacked, fired the fatal shots. Las Vegas police discounted Anderson as a suspect and interviewed him only once, briefly. He was later killed in an unrelated gang shooting.
Before they died, The Notorious B. But nothing indicates when the documents were created. And Louis Alfred, the recording engineer listed on the sheets, said in an interview that he remembered recording the song with Wallace in a late-night session, not during the day.
He could not recall the date of the session but said it was likely not the night Shakur was shot. Alfred said. In , pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act , the FBI released documents revealing its investigation of the Jewish Defense League for making death threats against Shakur and other rappers. The 7 Day Theory , Cormega recalled in an interview that the fans were all shouting "Makaveli",  and emphasized the influence of The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory and of Shakur himself even in New York at the height of the media-dubbed "intercoastal rivalry".
Shakur is held in high esteem by other MCs: The year-old Shakur had helped elevate rap from a crude street fad to a complex art form, setting the stage for the current global hip-hop phenomenon".
On November 14, , a documentary about Shakur entitled Tupac: Resurrection was released under the supervision of his mother and narrated entirely in his voice. It was nominated for Best Documentary at the Academy Awards.
Tupac as Celebrity Gramscian" in which he argued that Shakur was an example of the "organic intellectual" expressing the concerns of a larger group. Ostensibly Gone ". He ultimately described Shakur as a "prolific artist" who was "driven by a terrible sense of urgency" in a quest to "unify mind, body, and spirit".
Searching for Tupac Shakur , Michael Eric Dyson indicated that Shakur "spoke with brilliance and insight as someone who bears witness to the pain of those who would never have his platform.
He told the truth, even as he struggled with the fragments of his identity. Poetry and History of Tupac Shakur. In late , the Makaveli Branded Clothing line was launched by Afeni. In , Death Row released Tupac: Live at the House of Blues. In August , Tupac Shakur Legacy was released. The interactive biography was written by Jamal Joseph.
It features unseen family photographs, intimate stories, and over 20 removable reproductions of his handwritten song lyrics, contracts, scripts, poetry, and other personal papers.
He was still considered one of the most popular artists in the music industry as of [update]. There are murals bearing his likeness in New York, Brazil, Sierra Leone, Bulgaria and countless other places; he even has statues in Atlanta and Germany. Dre and Snoop Dogg were in talks of a possible tour involving the two rappers and the projection version of Shakur,  which was later turned down by Dr.
His biggest seller of the week was "Hail Mary"—the song his projection opened with at Coachella. His second biggest seller was his No. His third best-seller was the second Tupac song that was performed at Coachella — " 2 of Amerikaz Most Wanted " with Snoop. Executive director Robert Santelli praised Shakur as "one of the most original and important of all hip hop artists", adding that his writings were "both powerful and provocative". Demetrius Shipp Jr.
Music video director Benny Boom helmed All Eyez on Me , which had been hamstrung by production problems. Morgan Creek also sued Afeni Shakur for the music rights for the film.
Multiple directors were involved with the film before Boom, including John Singleton and Antoine Fuqua. MTV ranked him at No. In , The National Association Of Recording Merchandisers in conjunction with the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame recognized him as a very influential artist and has added him in their Definitive list.
His double album, All Eyez on Me , is one of the highest-selling rap albums of all time, with over 5 million copies of the album sold in the United States alone by April ; it was eventually certified 9x platinum in June by the RIAA.
Shakur is the third rapper to enter the library, outside of the copyright office, behind Grandmaster Flash and Public Enemy. In , Shakur was nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility,  when on December 20, , it was announced that he and 5 others would be inducted into the Hall on April 7, Resurrection , released in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other people with this name, see Tupac name. New York City , U. Las Vegas, Nevada , U. Keisha Morris m. Interscope Death Row Amaru. Main article: Murder of Tupac Shakur.
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