Label: Roulette - RA. 20239 Format: Vinyl LP Country: France Genre: Funk / Soul Style: Funk, Disco
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids. So it was a bit pointless filming the gigs. Rimbaud believed that Russell was murdered by the State for political reasons. We use the information we have about you — including information about your interests, actions and connections — to select and personalise ads, offers and other sponsored content that we show you. Network and connections:
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The face recognition templates that we create may constitute data with special protections under the laws of your country. As a group whose primary purpose was political commentary , they felt overtaken and made redundant by world events:. The speed with which the Falklands War was played out and the devastation that Thatcher was creating both at home and abroad, forced us to respond far faster than we had ever needed to before. Christ — The Album had taken so long to produce that some of the songs in it, songs that warned of the imminence of riots and war, had become almost redundant.
Toxteth, Bristol, Brixton and the Falklands were ablaze by the time that we released. We felt embarrassed by our slowness, humbled by our inadequacy. Subsequent releases including the singles "How Does It Feel?
From their early days of spraying stencilled anti-war , anarchist, feminist and anti-consumerist graffiti messages in the London Underground and on billboards,  Crass was involved in politically motivated direct action and musical activities. On 18 December , the band helped co-ordinate a hour squat in the empty west London Zig Zag club to prove "that the underground punk scene could handle itself responsibly when it had to and that music really could be enjoyed free of the restraints imposed upon it by corporate industry".
In and , Crass were part of the Stop the City actions co-ordinated by London Greenpeace  which foreshadowed the anti-globalisation rallies of the early 21st century. It was also a reflection of disagreements within the group, as explained by Rimbaud; "Half the band supported the pacifist line and half supported direct and if necessary violent action. It was a confusing time for us, and I think a lot of our records show that, inadvertently".
Another Crass hoax was known as the " Thatchergate tapes",  a recording of an apparently accidentally overheard telephone conversation due to crossed lines. Copies were leaked to the press via a Dutch news agency during the general election campaign. We found ourselves in a strange and frightening arena. We had wanted to make our views public, had wanted to share them with like minded people, but now those views were being analysed by those dark shadows who inhabited the corridors of power … We had gained a form of political power, found a voice, were being treated with a slightly awed respect, but was that really what we wanted?
Was that what we had set out to achieve all those years ago? The band had also incurred heavy legal expenses for the Penis Envy prosecution;  this, combined with exhaustion and the pressures of living and operating together, finally took its toll.
Palmer announced that he intended to leave the group. In November several former members arranged Your Country Needs You, a concert of "voices in opposition to war", as the Crass Collective. In June Crass Agenda was declared to be "no more", changing its name to the "more pertinent" Last Amendment. Initially Rimbaud refused Ignorant permission to perform Crass songs he had written, but later changed his mind: Plus, most of the lyrics are still relevant today.
In it was announced that Crass would release The Crassical Collection ,  remastered reissues of their back catalogue. Three former members objected, threatening legal action. First in the series was The Feeding of the , released in August He performed Crass material, culminating with a final performance at the Shepherds Bush Empire on 19 November. As it started, so it finished".
Smith, and he was joined by Eve Libertine for a number of songs. The exhibition is documented on The Art of Crass website. An Hysterical Romance. Russell had been placed in a psychiatric hospital after helping to set up the first Stonehenge free festival in , and died shortly afterwards. Rimbaud believed that Russell was murdered by the State for political reasons. The growth of anarcho-punk spurred interest in anarchist ideas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the band. For the definition of "crass", see crass. Crass on stage in Cumbria in May , with the slogan "there is no authority but yourself" in the background. From left to right: Pete Wright , Steve Ignorant , and N.
Anarcho-punk art punk avant-punk. Small Wonder Crass Southern. Main article: Crass Records. Punk rock portal Anarchism portal. Crass was born. The Story of Crass. Omnibus Press. Love Songs. Pomona Publishing.
Unfortunately for Victor, it was downhill from there. The dubs were audibly inferior to the original 78s. Record sales in the US had dropped from a high of The failure of the new product left RCA Victor with a low opinion of the prospects for any sort of long-playing record, influencing product development decisions during the coming decade.
Scott , who died September 22, , at the age of Research began in , was suspended during World War II, and then resumed in Three ten-inch series were released: When the LP was introduced in , the 78 was the conventional format for phonograph records.
By , 78s still accounted for slightly more than half of the units sold in the United States, and just under half of the dollar sales. Canada and the UK continued production into , while India, the Philippines, and South Africa produced 78s until , with the last holdout, Argentina, continuing until The popularity of the LP ushered in the " Album Era " of English-language popular music, beginning in the s, as performers took advantage of the longer playing time to create coherent themes or concept albums.
Although the popularity of LPs began to decline in the late s with the advent of Compact Cassettes , and later compact discs , the LP survives as a format to the present day. Vinyl LP records enjoyed a resurgence in the early s. It was introduced by RCA Victor in To compete with the LP, boxed albums of 45s were issued, along with EP Extended Play 45s, which squeezed two or even three selections onto each side.
Despite these efforts, the 45 succeeded only in replacing the 78 as the format for singles. This series was labeled AP-1 through about AP, pressed on grainless red vinyl. Today AP-1 through AP-5 are very scarce. By very tightly packing the fine groove, a playing time of 17 minutes per side was achieved. Reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorders posed a new challenge to the LP in the s, but the higher cost of pre-recorded tapes was one of several factors that confined tape to a niche market.
Cartridge and cassette tapes were more convenient and less expensive than reel-to-reel tapes, and they became popular for use in automobiles beginning in the mids. However, the LP was not seriously challenged as the primary medium for listening to recorded music at home until the s, when the audio quality of the cassette was greatly improved by better tape formulations and noise-reduction systems. By , cassettes were outselling LPs in the US. The Compact Disc CD was introduced in It offered a recording that was, theoretically, completely noiseless and not audibly degraded by repeated playing or slight scuffs and scratches.
At first, the much higher prices of CDs and CD players limited their target market to affluent early adopters and audiophiles.
But prices came down, and by CDs outsold LPs. The CD became the top-selling format, over cassettes, in Along with phonograph records in other formats, some of which were made of other materials, LPs are now widely referred to simply as " vinyl ". Since the late s there has been a renewed interest in vinyl . When initially introduced, inch LPs played for a maximum of 45 minutes, divided over two sides, with inch versions carrying a maximum of 35 minutes again over two sides. Soundtracks could no longer fit onto the mere 5 minutes per side that 78s offered.
They were not an immediate success, however, as they were released during the height of the Great Depression, and seemed frivolous to the many impoverished of the time. Owing to marketing attitudes at the time, the inch format was reserved solely for higher-priced classical recordings and Broadway shows. Popular music appeared only on inch records.
Executives believed classical music fans would be eager to hear a Beethoven symphony or a Mozart concerto without having to flip over multiple, four-minute-per-side 78s, and that pop music fans, who were used to listening to one song at a time, would find the shorter time of the inch LP sufficient.
Their beliefs were wrong. Ten-inch records reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. In , Columbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side.
The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit. But these records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. At around 14 minutes per side for inch and 23 minutes per side for inch, LPs provided a satisfactory time to enjoy a recording before needing to change or turn over a disc.
Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle. This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track. Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage.
A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable. A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loop , playing the same bit over and over until someone stops it.
This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition. Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn , which results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process.
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