Label: New Sound 2000 Ltd. - nst138 Format: CD Compilation Country: UK Genre: Blues
Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel showsand in vaudevilleduring which time many marching bands were formed. The Problem With Jazz Criticism". According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form". During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. The publication of his " Memphis Blues " sheet music in introduced the bar blues to the world although Gunther Schuller argues that it is not really a blues, but "more like a cakewalk" . Episode 1.
The ultimate significance of all this is that the experiments in jazz during the s brought back to African-American music several structural principles and techniques rooted in African traditions . These divergences from the jazz mainstream of the time met a divided, sometimes hostile response among fans and musicians, especially swing players who bristled at the new harmonic sounds. To hostile critics, bebop seemed filled with "racing, nervous phrases". The general consensus among musicians and musicologists is that the first original jazz piece to be overtly based in clave was "Tanga" , composed by Cuban-born Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans in New York City.
This was the birth of Afro-Cuban jazz. The use of clave brought the African timeline , or key pattern , into jazz. Music organized around key patterns convey a two-celled binary structure, which is a complex level of African cross-rhythm. The harmonic progression can begin on either side of clave, and the harmonic "one" is always understood to be "one".
If the progression begins on the "three-side" of clave, it is said to be in clave shown below. If the progression begins on the "two-side", its in clave. According to Gillespie, Pozo composed the layered, contrapuntal guajeos Afro-Cuban ostinatos of the A section and the introduction, while Gillespie wrote the bridge.
Gillespie recounted: I thought I was writing an eight-bar bridge, but I had to keep going and ended up writing a sixteen-bar bridge. While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop also drew from African rhythm. Jazz arrangements with a Latin A section and a swung B section, with all choruses swung during solos, became common practice with many Latin tunes of the jazz standard repertoire. Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition " Afro Blue " in The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line.
The cross noteheads indicate the main beats not bass notes. When John Coltrane covered "Afro Blue" in , he inverted the metric hierarchy, interpreting the tune as a 3 4 jazz waltz with duple cross-beats superimposed 2: In the late s, there was a revival of Dixieland , harking back to the contrapuntal New Orleans style.
This was driven in large part by record company reissues of jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the s. There were two types of musicians involved in the revival: Through the s and s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it.
Hard bop is an extension of bebop or "bop" music which incorporates influences from blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel, especially in saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop was developed in the mids, coalescing in and ; it developed partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early s and paralleled the rise of rhythm and blues.
Modal jazz is a development which began in the later s which takes the mode , or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Previously, a solo was meant to fit into a given chord progression , but with modal jazz, the soloist creates a melody using one or a small number of modes. The emphasis is thus shifted from harmony to melody: The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell. Miles Davis introduced the concept to the greater jazz world with Kind of Blue , an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz which would become the best selling jazz album of all time.
The track "So What" has only two chords: Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean ,  and two of the musicians who had also played on Kind of Blue: John Coltrane and Bill Evans.
By the s, Afro-Cuban jazz had been using modes for at least a decade, as much of it borrowed from Cuban popular dance forms which are structured around multiple ostinatos with only a few chords. However, there is no evidence that Davis or other mainstream jazz musicians were influenced by the use of modes in Afro-Cuban jazz, or other branches of Latin jazz. Free jazz, and the related form of avant-garde jazz , broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of world music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing.
The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres. The first major stirrings came in the s with the early work of Ornette Coleman whose album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation coined the term and Cecil Taylor.
On his tour of France, he was booed, but persevered, signing with the new Impulse! Records in and turning it into "the house that Trane built", while championing many younger free jazz musicians, notably Archie Shepp , who often played with trumpeter Bill Dixon , who organized the 4-day "October Revolution in Jazz" in Manhattan in , the first free jazz festival.
In the studio, he all but abandoned his soprano to concentrate on the tenor saxophone. In addition, the quartet responded to the leader by playing with increasing freedom. In June , Coltrane and 10 other musicians recorded Ascension , a minute-long piece without breaks that included adventurous solos by young avante-garde musicians as well as Coltrane, and was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos.
Dave Liebman later called it "the torch that lit the free jazz thing. After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Pharoah Sanders to join the band in September While Coltrane used over-blowing frequently as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders would opt to overblow his entire solo, resulting in a constant screaming and screeching in the altissimo range of the instrument.
They were eager to develop approaches to music that reflected their heritage. Since the s, creative centers of jazz in Europe have developed, such as the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. Following the work of drummer Han Bennink and pianist Misha Mengelberg , musicians started to explore by improvising collectively until a form melody, rhythm, a famous song is found Jazz critic Kevin Whitehead documented the free jazz scene in Amsterdam and some of its main exponents such as the ICP Instant Composers Pool orchestra in his book New Dutch Swing.
Since the s Keith Jarrett has defended free jazz from criticism. British writer Stuart Nicholson has argued European contemporary jazz has an identity different from American jazz and follows a different trajectory. Latin jazz is the term used to describe jazz which employs Latin American rhythms and is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America. A more precise term might be Afro-Latin jazz, as the jazz subgenre typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa or exhibit an African rhythmic influence beyond what is ordinarily heard in other jazz.
The two main categories of Latin jazz are Afro-Cuban jazz and Brazilian jazz. In the s and s, many jazz musicians had only a basic understanding of Cuban and Brazilian music, and jazz compositions which used Cuban or Brazilian elements were often referred to as "Latin tunes", with no distinction between a Cuban son montuno and a Brazilian bossa nova. History and Analysis , a bossa nova bass line is referred to as a "Latin bass figure.
Typically, the band would only play an even-eighth "Latin" feel in the A section of the head and swing throughout all of the solos. Latin jazz specialists like Cal Tjader tended to be the exception. For example, on a live Tjader recording of "A Night in Tunisia", pianist Vince Guaraldi soloed through the entire form over an authentic mambo. For most of its history, Afro-Cuban jazz had been a matter of superimposing jazz phrasing over Cuban rhythms. But by the end of the s, a new generation of New York City musicians had emerged who were fluent in both salsa dance music and jazz, leading to a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms.
This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers Jerry congas and trumpet and Andy bass. He incorporated parallel fourths, with McCoy Tyner-type vamps. This occurred in parallel with developments in Cuba  The first Cuban band of this new wave was Irakere. Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba , with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles.
Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English, whilst the related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of street samba into jazz. There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African-American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the s and s. African themes became popular, and many new jazz compositions were given African-related titles: Music From the New African Nations.
Some musicians, including Pharoah Sanders , Hubert Laws , and Wayne Shorter , began using African instruments such as kalimbas , bells, beaded gourds and other instruments which were not traditional to jazz. African rhythmic structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter bass and Tony Williams drums via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent.
The following example shows the 12 8 and 4 4 forms of the bass line. The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats not bass notes , where one ordinarily taps their foot to "keep time. The use of pentatonic scales was another trend associated with Africa. The use of pentatonic scales in Africa probably goes back thousands of years.
McCoy Tyner perfected the use of the pentatonic scale in his solos,  and also used parallel fifths and fourths, which are common harmonies in West Africa. The minor pentatonic scale is often used in blues improvisation, and like a blues scale, a minor pentatonic scale can be played over all of the chords in a blues.
Jazz pianist, theorist, and educator Mark Levine refers to the scale generated by beginning on the fifth step of a pentatonic scale as the V pentatonic scale. Levine points out that the V pentatonic scale works for all three chords of the standard II-V-I jazz progression. Superimposing the pentatonic scale over "Giant Steps" is not merely a matter of harmonic simplification, but also a sort of "Africanizing" of the piece, which provides an alternate approach for soloing.
Mark Levine observes that when mixed in with more conventional "playing the changes", pentatonic scales provide "structure and a feeling of increased space. In the late s and early s, the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa. Jazz fusion often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, complex chords, and harmonies.
In , Davis fully embraced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way , which can be considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero , this quiet, static album would be equally influential to the development of ambient music. The music I was really listening to in was James Brown , the great guitar player Jimi Hendrix , and a new group who had just come out with a hit record, " Dance to the Music ", Sly and the Family Stone I wanted to make it more like rock.
When we recorded In a Silent Way I just threw out all the chord sheets and told everyone to play off of that. Two contributors to In a Silent Way also joined organist Larry Young to create one of the early acclaimed fusion albums: The album featured a softer sound than would be the case in later years predominantly using acoustic bass with Shorter exclusively playing soprano saxophone , and with no synthesizers involved , but is still considered a classic of early fusion.
It built on the avant-garde experiments which Joe Zawinul and Shorter had pioneered with Miles Davis on Bitches Brew , including an avoidance of head-and-chorus composition in favour of continuous rhythm and movement — but took the music further. Although some jazz purists protested against the blend of jazz and rock, many jazz innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion.
As well as the electric instruments of rock such as electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano and synthesizer keyboards , fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals , wah-wah pedals and other effects that were used by s-era rock bands. Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan, where the band Casiopea released over thirty fusion albums.
According to jazz writer Stuart Nicholson, "just as free jazz appeared on the verge of creating a whole new musical language in the s By the mids, the sound known as jazz-funk had developed, characterized by a strong back beat groove , electrified sounds  and, often, the presence of electronic analog synthesizers. Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and Jamaican reggae , notably Kingston bandleader Sonny Bradshaw.
Another feature is the shift of emphasis from improvisation to composition: While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape.
The s saw something of a reaction against the fusion and free jazz that had dominated the s. Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis emerged early in the decade, and strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, rejecting both fusion and free jazz and creating extensions of the small and large forms initially pioneered by artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington , as well as the hard bop of the s.
For example, several musicians who had been prominent in the fusion genre during the s began to record acoustic jazz once more, including Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock. Other musicians who had experimented with electronic instruments in the previous decade had abandoned them by the s; for example, Bill Evans , Joe Henderson , and Stan Getz.
Even the s music of Miles Davis , although certainly still fusion, adopted a far more accessible and recognisably jazz-oriented approach than his abstract work of the mids, such as a return to a theme-and-solos approach. In the s, the groups of Betty Carter and Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers retained their conservative jazz approaches in the midst of fusion and jazz-rock, and in addition to difficulty booking their acts, struggled to find younger generations of personnel to authentically play traditional styles such as hard bop and bebop.
In the s, in addition to Wynton and Branford Marsalis , the emergence of pianists in the Jazz Messengers such as Donald Brown , Mulgrew Miller , and later, Benny Green, bassists such as Charles Fambrough , Lonnie Plaxico and later, Peter Washington and Essiet Essiet horn players such as Bill Pierce , Donald Harrison and later Javon Jackson and Terence Blanchard emerged as talented jazz musicians, all of whom made significant contributions in the s and s. These younger rising stars rejected avant-garde approaches and instead championed the acoustic jazz sound of Charlie Parker , Thelonious Monk and early recordings of the first Miles Davis quintet.
This group of "Young Lions" sought to reaffirm jazz as a high art tradition comparable to the discipline of classical music. A similar reaction [ vague ] took place against free jazz. According to Ted Gioia:. Anthony Braxton began recording standards over familiar chord changes.
Cecil Taylor played duets in concert with Mary Lou Williams , and let her set out structured harmonies and familiar jazz vocabulary under his blistering keyboard attack.
And the next generation of progressive players would be even more accommodating, moving inside and outside the changes without thinking twice. Musicians such as David Murray or Don Pullen may have felt the call of free-form jazz, but they never forgot all the other ways one could play African-American music for fun and profit. Chick Corea similarly began exploring jazz standards in the s, having neglected them for the s. In the early s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called "pop fusion" or "smooth jazz" became successful, garnering significant radio airplay in " quiet storm " time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.
In general, smooth jazz is downtempo the most widely played tracks are of 90— beats per minute , and has a lead melody-playing instrument saxophone, especially soprano and tenor, and legato electric guitar are popular. Critic Aaron J. West has countered the often negative perceptions of smooth jazz, stating:. I challenge the prevalent marginalization and malignment of smooth jazz in the standard jazz narrative. Furthermore, I question the assumption that smooth jazz is an unfortunate and unwelcomed evolutionary outcome of the jazz-fusion era.
Instead, I argue that smooth jazz is a long-lived musical style that merits multi-disciplinary analyses of its origins, critical dialogues, performance practice, and reception. Acid jazz developed in the UK in the s and s, influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music. Acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition sometimes including Sampling music or a live DJ cutting and scratching , but it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance.
Richard S. Ginell of AllMusic considers Roy Ayers "one of the prophets of acid jazz. Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, and there are usually no improvisational aspects. It can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept. Jazz rap developed in the late s and early s and incorporates jazz influences into hip hop.
The groups which made up the Native Tongues Posse tended toward jazzy releases: The relaxation of orthodoxy which was concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation of jazz. In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz and dub reggae into their brand of punk rock. John Zorn took note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock, and incorporated this into free jazz with the release of the Spy vs.
Spy album in , a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style. The M-Base movement started in the s, when a loose collective of young African-American musicians in New York which included Steve Coleman , Greg Osby , and Gary Thomas developed a complex but grooving  sound.
In the s, most M-Base participants turned to more conventional music, but Coleman, the most active participant, continued developing his music in accordance with the M-Base concept. M-Base changed from a movement of a loose collective of young musicians to a kind of informal Coleman "school",  with a much advanced but already originally implied concept.
Since the s, jazz has been characterized by a pluralism in which no one style dominates, but rather a wide range of styles and genres are popular. Individual performers often play in a variety of styles, sometimes in the same performance.
Pianist Brad Mehldau and The Bad Plus have explored contemporary rock music within the context of the traditional jazz acoustic piano trio, recording instrumental jazz versions of songs by rock musicians. The Bad Plus have also incorporated elements of free jazz into their music. A firm avant-garde or free jazz stance has been maintained by some players, such as saxophonists Greg Osby and Charles Gayle , while others, such as James Carter , have incorporated free jazz elements into a more traditional framework.
Harry Connick Jr. Although jazz-rock fusion reached the height of its popularity in the s, the use of electronic instruments and rock-derived musical elements in jazz continued in the s and s. Since the beginning of the 90s, electronic music had significant technical improvements that popularized and created new possibilities for the genre.
It received some criticism, however, for its failure to reflect the many distinctive non-American traditions and styles in jazz that had developed, and its limited representation of US developments in the last quarter of the 20th century. The album heavily featured prominent contemporary jazz artists such as Thundercat  and redefined jazz rap with a larger focus on improvisation and live soloing rather than simply sampling. In that same year, saxophonist Kamasi Washington released his nearly three-hour long debut, The Epic.
Supergroup Snarky Puppy has adopted this trend and has allowed for players like Cory Henry  to shape the grooves and harmonies of modern jazz soloing. YouTube phenomenon Jacob Collier also gained recognition for his ability to play an incredibly large number of instruments and his ability to use microtones , advanced polyrhythms, and blend a spectrum of genres in his largely homemade production process. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 March For other uses, see Jazz disambiguation.
Blues ragtime spirituals folk marches classical music of West Africa. Main article: Jazz word. Jazz improvisation. See also: Traditional sub-Saharan African harmony. A hexatonic blues scale on C, ascending. Jazz Age. Jazz Me Blues.
Main articles: Swing music and s in jazz. Afro-Cuban jazz. Excerpt from a saxophone solo by Charlie Parker. The fast, complex rhythms and substitute chords of bebop were important to the formation of jazz. This hard blues by John Coltrane is an example of hard bop, a post-bebop style which is informed by gospel music, blues, and work songs. This piece by the Mahavishnu Orchestra merges jazz improvisation and rock instrumentation into jazz fusion.
This track by Courtney Pine shows how electronica and hip hop influences can be incorporated into modern jazz. Hard bop. Modal jazz. Free jazz. Latin jazz. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Jazz fusion. Smooth jazz. African American portal Jazz portal Music portal. National Park Service. Retrieved A Map of Jazz Styles". Retrieved — via University of Salzburg. American Quarterly. From Jazz to Swing: Northwestern University. Brown and Benchmark. Oxford University Press, 26 July Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 20 June Chicago Daily Tribune. Archived from the original PDF on January 30, Retrieved November 4, — via Paris-Sorbonne University. A Tale of Three Cities". Word Routes. The Visual Thesaurus. Retrieved June 8, Retrieved 2 January American Dialect Society. The Jazz Book: From Ragtime to Fusion and Beyond.
Translated by H. Bredigkeit with Dan Morgenstern. Lawrence Hill Books, p. The New Jazz Book. Retrieved 4 August The Village Voice.
This Land. Adia Victoria. John Mayall. Nobody Told Me. In a late-career peak, the octogenarian British bluesman enlists a handful of all-star guitarists to assist on this smoking collection of covers and originals. Eric Gales. The Bookends.
With the assistance of producer Matt Wallace, the blues guitarist focuses on songs and singing. Seth Walker. Are You Open? A deft, elegant record that weaves together stories and Southern sounds.
Our Native Daughters. Songs of Our Native Daughters. The debut from the folk and roots music supergroup delivers a potent, personal, and much-needed retelling of American history. Katarina Pejak. Roads That Cross. On her Mike Zito-produced Ruf Records debut, the pianist, singer, and songwriter delivers a dazzling take on modern blues. Share on facebook twitter tumblr. Bessie Smith. A studio recording of "Where Did We Go Wrong" was included on international editions of the album, but these international releases omitted the live track "The Man I Love".
In a five decade career, "Stolen Moments" though centered on one segment of her career, is one of the best live albums she has ever released. Missing the summit by one, 2 fans obviously agreed.
All albums lead back to " Lady Sings the Blues ". The soundtrack hit the summit 1 on the Jazz album chart. Whilst both "Stolen Moments" and "Blue" peaked at 2. Along with their commercial success, they were all critically acclaimed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Diana Ross.
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