Label: Rainbow Bridge - RB-178 Format: Cassette Limited Edition, Numbered C32 Country: US Genre: Electronic Style: Noise, Drone, Abstract, Experimental
Ultimately one followed and responded to the progression of his thinking within the forms of work he investigated. This also suggests a complex sense of economic and geopolitical interconnectness. See Cantemir, p. Thus we recur to our great principle of Separate gift. I have said so without reserve or equivocation; but the accuracy of each of my assertions may be judged by the proofs which accompany it. Petersburg in a hundred sheets, which was lent to me for the purpose by MR.
Some travellers have avowedly neglected any research into the peculiar customs, manners, and opinions of the Turks, while others, less ingenuous, have observed them superficially and even falsely, have guessed at what they have not understood, and have described rather what they have imagined than what they have beheld. The foreign traveller, unfamiliarized with the manners, and unacquainted with the language, of the people whom he studies, can have only a distant view, or a transient glance, even of the most prominent features of his subject: As I claim for my labours, in common with my predecessors in this career, the same indulgence, I have consequently hazarded assertions which can derive support only from a reliance on the veracity of the author.
The remoteness of my subject from general observation, leaves, however, the right of censure or contradiction in so few hands that the reader is justified in with-holding his assent, until I adduce proof, that the means which I have possessed, and the circumstances in which I have been placed, have qualified me for the task which I have undertaken. A residence of fourteen years in the British factory at Constantinople, and about fifteen months at Odessa on the coast of the Black Sea; occasional excursions to the provinces of Asia Minor and the islands of the Archipelago; a familiar intimacy with the most respectable of the foreign ministers and their 4 interpreters; a long and not unemployed leisure; and a knowledge of the languages of the country sufficient for the purposes of ordinary communication; must have furnished opportunities for original observation, and have enabled me to discriminate, with greater accuracy than the inexperienced reader, between the imaginary and the real in the relations of former writers.
The state of society in the capital of the Turkish empire is such, that a mere personal acquaintance is the necessary effect of the relative position of all classes of Europeans. Liston, of Sir Sidney Smith, and his brother and colleague in the embassy, Mr.
Van Dedem the Batavian ambassador, M. Descorches formerly Marquis de Sainte Croix ambassador from the French republic. I have had the satisfaction of being personally acquainted with the most distinguished of the modern travellers in Turkey, and have been gratified by having it in my power to assist their inquiries, and to point out to their observation objects connected with their different pursuits.
Some gentlemen have done me the honour to acknowledge, that they derived advantage from my communications; and I hope it will not be imputed to vanity, that I record with a melancholy satisfaction the last grateful expressions of a scholar whose heart glowed with every virtue, and whose mind was both 6 enriched by literature and enlarged by philosophy. He died at Athens, and was buried in the temple of Theseus.
Three days before his death he wrote me the following letter, which I value from my respect for its amiable author, and preserve the more carefully as it is the last which he ever wrote. Neave to Smyrna, from whence he will proceed to Constantinople.
I am desirous, that he should not set sail without taking charge of half a dozen lines for you, because I recollect with continued satisfaction the resources which I derived from your society during my residence at Pera, and promise myself at the same time, that you will thank me for having procured you the acquaintance of this gentleman. I do not add a syllable upon any other subject. I hope at least you will understand, even though you should not be able to read it, that my best wishes attend you and Mrs.
Thornton, and that I am, my dear Sir, ever very truly yours,. Placed by circumstances in a country where the general appearances of nature, and more especially the general manners of the inhabitants, are so exceedingly different from those to which I had been familiarized, I was consequently led to observe, though without having formed any fixed design, the occurrences that were daily passing before me.
General manners more particularly attracted my notice, whether from natural taste and the bent of preceding studies, or because, from the means which were in my power, I judged myself qualified to prosecute my inquiries in this department with greater prospect of success.
I read the works of preceding travellers, who, by pointing out what chiefly merits attention, shorten the labour of observation: I selected from their writings such remarks as I found corresponding with the original model; and having thus ascertained their accuracy, I treasured them up in my own mind, and considered them as a legitimate augmentation of the stock of my own knowledge.
Attached to no system, 9 having no hypothesis to defend, and being influenced neither by affection nor animosity, I merely accumulated observations and amassed ideas. I studied effects in their different relations without hastily inquiring after causes. It required a long familiarity with the usages of the country, and experience in the manners of the inhabitants, to be able to discriminate between what is genuine and habitual, and what is adventitious and adulterated.
It was necessary to observe the same conduct in different persons, to compare it in its various operations, and to identify it under dissimilar circumstances, before incorporating it with that distinguishing mass of peculiar habits which constitute the national character, and from which particularities and individual features are to be excluded. In the possession of means, adequate to the accomplishment of the task which I had set to myself, consisted the superior advantage of my position over that of the cursory traveller, who must derive his information almost entirely from inquiry.
In his eagerness for information he cannot expect to penetrate beyond the surface: While I acknowledge my obligations to those whose labours have removed the difficulties which perhaps would have wholly impeded, and certainly would have considerably retarded, my progress, I must however declare, that in almost all the writers who have preceded me in the description of Turkish manners, I discover partiality or prejudice, a redundancy or a dearth of information.
I have observed, in some instances, that accuracy is sacrificed to the beauties of style, 11 and even to trifling conceits and absurd comparisons. The European, attached to the peculiar usages of his own country, condemns whatever is irreconcileable with them.
On the other hand the Turkish national historian, whose conceptions have never been enlarged by general study, has neglected to mark the nice discriminating traits of the Oriental character, has overlooked defects with which he was familiarized, and has even mistaken deformity for beauty. In order to learn with precision, it was necessary to return to the state of childhood wherein every object that presents itself is a lesson, to gather together a comprehensive mass of information, to examine it with patience, to review it with care, and, as experience advanced, to reject whatever had been hastily adopted or only superficially surveyed.
I read the human character, not through a verbal translation, but as depicted 12 by its own unequivocal expressions when acting free from restraint, unguarded by suspicion, unconscious of exposing itself to examination, and exhibiting alternately its different features, as they were alternately put in motion by the predominance of different passions. Such were my means of acquiring information, and such my mode of employing them. The result of my observations I now submit to the judgment of an enlightened public.
In the course of my work I have obtruded myself as seldom as possible on the notice of the reader. If I appear, it is to support assertions which rest on my sole authority, or to give authenticity to facts by vindicating the correctness of my own statements. In representing foreign manners I have divested myself of national prejudices: I have endeavoured to avoid those expressions of malevolence which sully the pages of preceding Christian writers.
I am not, however, conscious, that I have glossed over any error, concealed any absurdity, or misrepresented any dogma, practice, or ceremony. The doctrines of Islamism, founded as they are on the religion of nature and the revelations of both our scriptures, must necessarily possess a considerable portion of intrinsic worth; but this acknowledgment by no means implies respect for the artificial and heterogeneous superstructure which peculiarly constitutes Mahometanism.
I have contemplated my subject under the guidance of my own reason; but I trust, that it has seduced me into no error which can corrupt the heart or mislead the judgment.
I flatter myself, that the reader will perceive, throughout my work, zeal in the cause of virtue, morality pure though not morose, respect for order in human society, 14 reverence for religious and civil institutions, and, above all, a love of liberty, the characteristical virtue of the nation to which I esteem it an honour to belong. I am aware, that it may be said I have forfeited my title to indulgence by the severity with which I have animadverted on the writings of preceding travellers.
I have perused some works in which not a single fact is justly stated, nor a single conclusion fairly deduced. I have said so without reserve or equivocation; but the accuracy of each of my assertions may be judged by the proofs which accompany it. I have expressed without reserve the feelings which have been excited by studied misrepresentations, by falsifications of which the author himself was conscious, and by arguments rendered specious in order to mislead; but if in any instance I have censured unjustly, if I have presumed to decide where I was unqualified to judge, if I have been actuated by any other motive than the love of truth, the severity of my 15 own remarks may justly be retorted with ten fold exacerbation.
In some instances I may appear to have cut the Gordian knot by too unmasked a blow; but the fallacy of its artifice did not seem deserving of a more elaborate process of disentanglement. I have not sought controversy, but I felt it my duty not to avoid it; and I shall acknowledge the propriety of reproof only when it is demonstrated, that any remark could be omitted without injury to truth.
My personal acquaintance with several of the modern travellers has neither seduced me into undeserved praise, nor provoked me into bitterness. I have dismissed from my mind every consideration of private partiality or resentment, and having undertaken a work, whose only merit must be its intrinsic accuracy, I have sacrificed every inferior motive to the love of justice and of truth.
THE events which took place about the period of the first publication of this work, having interrupted the usual intercourse with Turkey, it has hitherto been impossible to ascertain the veracity of its statements by confronting them with the institutions and manners which it describes. The book has however, been perused with minute attention by persons conversant with the subject both from study and experience, and however dubious may be its merit in other respects, it has been generally acknowledged to bear the character of truth.
It has received commendation, certainly not inferior to its deserts, for accuracy and impartiality of observation, and it has been criticized, with no less justice than severity, for want of perspicuity in style and arrangement.
The praise and the censure have equally prompted me to aspire after a less qualified approbation for the edition which I now offer to the world. On comparing the present, with the former, edition, it will be evident, that I have studied to improve it by the fruits of my own reflection and reading, and by the suggestions of the most learned and judicious of the public writers. I have expunged whatever seemed objectionable, have endeavoured to supply what was deficient, to illustrate what was obscure, and to methodize what was confused.
I should feel shame and regret at having published so imperfect a performance as the first copy, if I were not conscious, that its defects were not owing to negligence or precipitation, but solely to immaturity of judgment, and want of experience in the art of literary composition. The introductory chapter of the present work, which is professedly an inquiry into the causes which led to the former aggrandizement and actual debility of the Ottoman power, incidentally deduces the history of the Turks from the remotest ages to the 18 commencement of the nineteenth century.
The necessity of connecting the past with the present state of the nation, in order to a thorough comprehension of the subject, must be the excuse of my temerity in venturing to trace the recent footsteps of Voltaire and Gibbon in so difficult and intricate a path. In the arrangement of the succeeding chapters, I have not implicitly followed the opinion of writers to whom the public looks with deference.
A general view of the manners, arts, and government of the Turks, in which the whole subject is laid open, appeared to be a useful preliminary. I have therefore retained this chapter, and with the less hesitation, because its contents are perfectly intelligible without any acquaintance with the subsequent matter.
The Ottoman government has been generally supposed to be a theocracy; and on this hypothesis it has been pronounced, that 19 a previous attention to the religion of the prophet Mahomet is necessary in order to discuss the power of the sultan and the political establishments of the empire. I have, however, persisted in considering the subject of religion solely as it influences and modifies the opinions and manners of individuals, and have adhered, in this respect, to the arrangement which I had originally adopted.
The government of Mahomet and the Caliphs was indeed a theocracy: This feudal government has since incorporated the theocratical powers of the successors of the prophet, which now form a branch of the Ottoman constitution.
The sultan was already despotic: Mahometanism sanctified, but did not moderate, his absolute power. In this respect the political and religious constitutions 20 perfectly coincide; and therefore, though theocratical powers are superadded, they neither restrain, nor extend, the exercise of temporal authority.
The second chapter, therefore, treats of the Ottoman constitution, and the third, of the administration of justice; although I again expose myself to censure for thus separating subjects which some persons assert to be intimately and naturally connected. As, however, the religious code is the only rule observed in the administration of justice, it seems, so far from being impossible, to be even necessary, to distinguish from the exercise of authority which is independent and without controul, this simple application of paramount law, beyond which the sovereign or his delegates cannot constitutionally interfere.
It is admitted, that the military force, and the finances, of the Ottoman empire, occupy, 21 with sufficient precision and distinctness, the fourth and fifth chapters; and, as, together with the preceding part, they comprise the whole subject of the Ottoman constitution and government, I have placed immediately after them the chapter on the situation of the empire with respect to the neighbouring states.
It has indeed been proposed to terminate the work with this discussion, but as the succeeding chapters relate only to religion, and the manners of private and domestic life, I have judged it no less proper to conclude whatever is connected with politics before a new and distinct subject engages the attention.
The manners and customs of the men, and the domestic economy of the women, are reserved for the seventh and eighth chapters: I have, however, in compliance with 22 the general opinion of the East, been induced to consider the harem as wholly distinct from the male establishment of a Turkish family.
Origin and monarchy of the Turks in Asia. THE high antiquity of the Turks is attested by the Persian and Arabian writers, as well as by those of their own nation. The Persian traditions relate, that Turc, who gave his name to Turkistan, and Iredj, to whom xxiv the Persian kings ascribe their origin,. Abulfaragius, an Arabian author, in his universal history of dynasties, enumerates the Turks among the seven original races of mankind, who, according to his account, are the Persians, Chaldaeans, Greeks, Egyptians, Turks, Indians, and Chinese.
The Turkish writers assert their descent from Japhet by Turc, the eldest of his eight sons, the founder of the Tartar race, who fixed his residence at Selinkiah, allured by the salubrity of the air and the purity of the waters. Vienna Geloni urbem ligneam habitant: These tribes, of whom they barely mention the names, inhabited the eastern coast of the sea of Azoff, and the plains which lie between the Don and the Dnieper: See Peyssonnel, observations historiques et geographiques sur les peuples barbares qui ont habile les bords du Danube et du Pont-Euxin, p.
Paris In the year the Uzi, a Moldavian horde of the Turkish race, served in the Roman armies, and Under the same name, or that of Gozz, as they are called by the orientals, they appear on the Volga, and in Armenia, Syria, and Khorassan.
See Gibbon, hist, of the decline and fall of the Roman empire, v. London The Charazi are said to be the same as the Magiars, by which name the modern Hungarians are known to the Ottoman Turks. See Peysonnel, p. The Patzinacitas are supposed by Leun-clavius to be the inhabitants of Bosnia, who still call themselves Botzinaki, but it must be observed, that the inhabitants of Bosnia are Slavi, and that De Guignes hist, des Huns, t.
Paris a derives the Patzinacitas from the Turks or Huns. The most remote ancestors of the Turks, of whom authentic history makes mention, were the wandering tribes of Hiong-nou, or Huns, who dwelt under tents, and occupied with their flocks and herds the extensive plains which lie to the north of China.
The foundation of their first empire is carried back to the year before the birth of Christ. It included the whole of Asiatic Tartary, and was dissolved by the dissensions of the reigning family, and the victories of the Chinese. The dispersed Huns emigrated to different countries. Part of them invaded Europe in the reign of the emperor Valens, and founded an empire which subsisted till the year The subject of the epic poem of Ferdusi shah nameh] is the war of Cyrus with Afrasiab, the Turkish or Hunnish monarch.
A celebrated system of unwritten laws called yasac which in modern Turkish signifies forbidden or prohibited anciently prevailed in Tartary, and was republished by Jenghiz Khan. Tamerlane is said to have almost preferred it to the koran.
Gibbon, Roman hist. The Turks, a branch of the ancient family of the Huns, continued to inhabit the Altai mountains, but were subject to the Geougen Tartars, until the year , when their chief renounced his allegiance and made war upon his master, wrested the empire from him by repeated victories, and assumed the sovereign title of khan.
The Turkish empire which was thus established in Tartary, extended eastward as far as China, and thence, along the frontiers of India and Persia, to the lake Maeotis and the confines of the Roman empire. Its influence on the affairs of the Romans was felt only so far as the Turks impelled the tribes whose country they invaded towards the Roman, frontiers, or in the occasional alliances of the two nations, and the powerful diversion which the Turks made on the side of the Oxus, against their common enemy the Persians.
The history of their foreign or domestic wars, the subversion or dissolution of their empire after a duration of two hundred and eleven [A. This transient relief entailed on the successors to the cahphat a permanent evil of a more grievous nature; for we read, immediately after, of the seditions of the Turkish guards on account of their pay being in arrears, of their combinations in acts of regicide and rebellion, and of their uncontrolled dilapidations of the public treasure: From the name of the moun-tains, and that of the lake Altyn, which lies at the foot of them, I suppose, that they contained gold mines.
The royal camp, or residence of the Turkish kham, was on the same mountains, and was situated, according to the observation of a Chinese astronomer, in the latitude of forty-nine degrees. See Gibbon, Rom. Abulfaragii hist, comp. The empire founded in Arabia by the pro-phet Mahomet, and extended by the rapid conquests of his successors as far as mount [Empire of Mahomet and the caliphs. Moavia, governor of Syria, refused to acknowlege the sovereignty of Ali, the fourth caliph, and declared war against him in order to avenge the blood of his predecessor Othman.
It continued in the family of the Abassides for the space of five hundred and twenty-three years, under the dominion of thirty-seven successive caliphs.
Their reigns were however disturbed by the pretensions of the Fatimites, the presumed, descendants of the house of Ali by Fatima the daughter of Mahomet, who, regarding their ancestor as the rightful heir to the caliphat, on account of his relationship and his early and constant attachment to the prophet, branded not only the Abassides, but the immediate successors of Mahomet, with the name of traitors and usurpers, as the Abassides had, in their turn, stigmatized the caliphs of the house of Ommias.
The dynasty of the Fatimites was first established in Africa. In the year of the hegira they conquered Egypt, and built the city of Cairo for the seat of their government.
The dignity was instituted by Mahomet himself, during his occasional absences from Medina, in the second year of the hegira. See Tab. He then ordered carpets and mats to be spread over the heap of bodies, and made a sumptuous entertainment amidst the groans of his expiring enemies. S31, , The prophet Mahomet, who left no male issue, appears to have felt but little anxiety to ensure to his successors the temporal authority which he himself had exercised over his followers.
Abubekir and the two succeeding caliphs founded their title, not on the appointment of the prophet or their connexion with his family, but on their own influence in the state, and the choice of their companions. The right of Ali, who tmited to his title of kinsman of the prophet the free election of the Mussulmans, would have been undisputed, if he had not been implicated in, or at least accused of being accessary to, the murder of Othman.
The death of Mahomet was doubted, and even denied by the most zealous of his disciples, after the event had taken place. Omar drew his scymetar in the midst of the assembly, and threatened to put to death any one who should dare to assert, that the prophet was no more. The faithful multitude would have submitted to the impression, if Abubekir had not convinced them by his eloquence, that not Mahomet, but the God of Mahomet, was the only infinity and immortal being.
See Mignot, t. The Abassides, as well as the Ommiades, ran the usual round of despotism. The few political maxims which had been transmitted by tradition from Mahomet to the caliphs, were insufficient for the regular government of their extensive empire.
They passed from the labours of conquest and the acquisition of wealth to the criminal indulgence of their passions and the total neglect cf the duties of -royalty. Nu- xxxv merous hordes of the same people continued, however, to wander over the plains which border the Caspian sea and the Persian empire. See in the Tableau General, t. The Roman empire was first invaded by [A. Their conquest of Asia Minor was authorized, and even suggested, by the caliph of Bagdad, in order to settle a dispute between the Seljukian sultan, Malek Shah, and his kinsmen, the five sons of Cutulmisch who had fallen in battle against his father.
The city of Nice in Bithynia, within an hundred miles of Constantinople, was chosen by the sultans of this latter dynasty to be the metropolis of their kingdom and the seat of their government.
In the distress occasioned by the near ap- [Embassy of the Byzantine emperor to the council of Placentia. The resentment of Christendom had been already excited against the Turks by their conquest of the city of Jerusalem, and their molestation of the pilgrims who resorted in numerous bodies to perform their devotions at the holy sepulchre ; and a confederation of the princes of Europe was resolved upon for the purpose of expelling them from Palestine, to which design the relief of Constantinople was necessarily subordinate.
Cantemir, history of the growth and decay of the Othraan empire, p, 20, note 6. By means of the crusaders, whose first [The crusades. The Turks were xxxviii expelled from the islands of Rhodes and Chios. Ephesus, Smyrna, Sardes, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, were restored to the empire, which now extended over the entire circuit of the coast of Anatolia, from Trebi-zond to the Syrian gates. The Seljukian sultans, who were thus removed from communication with the sea by the conquests of the emperors, were also separated from their Mussulman brethren by those of the crusaders, and especially by the establishment of the Christian principality of Antioch and the kingdom of Jerusalem, with their fiefs and dependencies.
This event was facilitated by their conquests over the Fatimites, which united under their sceptre the countries from the Tigris to the Nile. On the death of Saladin, the unity of his empire was broken: The general confusion of the age introduced [Conquests of Jenghiz Khan. De Guignes, t. Such was the general state of Asia and the Greek empire when, in the 6llth year of the hegira and th of the Christian sera, the great ancestor of the Ottoman princes, Soliman Shah, encouraged by the example, or alarmed at the progress, of Jenghiz Khan, quitted his settlements in Kho-rassan, a province of Persia, and his native city Mahan, and leading forth his subjects and associates to new conquests, first approached the confines of Anatolia.
His conquests and his life were terminated by the river Euphrates, which he attempted to pass on horseback. Osman, the founder of the empire which [Osman, son of Ertogrul, founder of the Ottoman dynasty: A sheik in the neighbourhood of Eski Shehr, named Edebaly, possessed still greater attractions for the young prince in the personal charms of his daughter, Malhun-hatynn. His treachery and the resentment of Osman involved the citizens in the horrors of civil war.
He dreamed, or invented a dream: The natural interpretation of such a prodigy pointed out the sheik, who was himself skilled in the art of developing mysteries, as the future father-in-law of a monarch, already united to him in community of faith, whose race, as was typified by the mysterious tree Tuba, one of xliii the wonders of paradise, should multiply their possessions, and extend their sway beyond the capital of the eastern empire.
Such reasoning, seconded by the blooming beauties of Malhun-hatynn, was irresistible. The relaxed state of government and military discipline among the Romans, encouraged the inroads of the Turks, which continued with unremitting success, till Mahomet the Second, in the year fourteen hundred and fifty-three, placed himself on the throne of the C sesars.
The power of the Ottoman sultans gradually extended from the banks of the Dnieper to the cataracts of the Nile, and from the Adriatic sea to the Persian gulf, over that portion of the globe which seems most favoured by nature, and which has been the parent, or the nurse, of all the sciences and all the arts of civilized life.
Knolles, Turkish history, v. We are led to expect in the history of the Ottomans the practice of the same virtues, and the development of the same talents, which, after a longer and more obstinate struggle, had given to the Roman people the dominion of the world. One great cause of the prosperity common to both empires in their incipient state and their early progress, was, that both were governed by a succession of rulers of extraordinary talents, of which no example is to be found in any other Asiatic dynasty besides the Turkish.
To the genius of the kings of Rome may indeed be ascribed the superior merit of having elicited the martial qualities and latent energies of their subjects, while the Ottoman sultans were themselves cast in the mould of pre-existing institutions.
Every thing conspired to make them consider the moments as lost which were not devoted to ambition, or occupied in the conquest of the infidels. The first attack of an army stimulated by such powerful motives, was furious and generally irresistible.
The Turks living amid the havoc of perpetual hostilities, were necessarily superior in strength, in experience, in skillj and more especially in that confidence of success by which victory is so often won, to a people averse from war, which they regarded as an interruption of their ordinary and more agreeable pursuits, and who, after repelling an imminent danger, immediately relapsed into their former habits of luxury and indolence.
Hence the Turks became the terror and the envy of their antagonists and rivals: Mignot, hist. At an earlier period, the military science of the Greeks, and the numerous armies of Persia, had been forced to yield to the compact pressure of the Macedonian phalanx: On the abolition of the legion a barbarian system succeeded, and the west of Europe was covered with warriors, who, though possessing individually the greatest address in warlike exercises, emulated only the personal achievements of heroic warfare, and led on the great bodies of their soldiers by imitation and example, ra- xlviii ther than by an adherence to any principle of tactics or any system of combined operations.
The high spirit which animated the descendants of the Normans and Germans had now retired from distant and fruitless crusades, and was occupied chiefly in the wars, or the domestic feuds, of Europe.
The eastern empire had protracted its feeble existence by arts calculated to debase the ruler, and to extinguish every spark of manly fire in the breasts of the people. The court of Constantinople had practised perjury and treachery, had submitted to insult and public reprimand: The unwarlike Greeks were not, however, the only enemies with whom the Ottomans had to contend.
The downfal of the Byzantine empire was retarded by the fears, or the jealousy, of the emirs who still exercised independent power over the fairest provinces of the Seljukian monarchy. The sovereignty of the emir of Cara- mania, which derives it name from the mountain Amanus, extended over Cilicia, and part of the frontiers of Lycaonia, Pamphilia, Caria, and the greater Phrygia, Ionia Ma-, ritima, as far as the city of Smyrna, obeyed the family of Sarukhan.
Aidin consisted of the greatest part of Mysia, together with some part of Lydia. The principality "of Mentes derived its name from a city in Caria called Mendos or Myn-dus. Ertogrul was buried in this town, and his tomb is to this day held in veneration by the Ottomans.
Leunclavius, historiat Musulmanics Turcorum, p. Francofurti ChaJ-condylas, 1. Knolles, v. Orient, voc. Carman, Carax Hi, Aidin, Soli. Mignot, t. Gibbon, v. The names or titles of the several governors, exclusively of the sultan of Iconium, are thus enumerated in the Turkish annals seeCantemir, preface, p. Haya The Asiatic Greeks, thus insulated among powerful and irreconcileable enemies, could not protect themselves by union or confederacy, and despaired of succour from the Byzantine emperors, who, after the feeble effort.
In the mean time Osman, by frequent and important acquisitions in Phrygia, Mysia, and Bithynia, laid the foundations of his empire: But Osman had so terrified the Christians, by his consummate skill and san-guiuary practice in war, that they cautiously-avoided giving him any cause of offence. Before his power was firmly established he prudently connected himself, by a general treaty of amity, with the surrounding chieftains: Formidable only to his enemies, Osman endeavoured to soothe into loyalty the subjects whom he had acquired by force, and to reconcile the conquered Christians to his government by the exercise of justice and of mercy; by leaving, in some instances, the ancient laws of the country without abrogation or change, or by the establishment and impartial admi- liv nistration of new and salutary regulations.
He neglected no means, which the wisest policy could dictate, of alluring the conquered people to return to their settlements. Among the captives, the women and the children were taken under his peculiar protection. Submission ensured safety to all, and conversion to Mahometanism led to dignity and affluence. Their name and nation were no longer dear to the Greeks. The civil and military virtues of Osman were not the only causes of his success.
The Turkish subjects of the neighbouring emirs flocked to the standard of a victorious prince, who distributed among his soldiers the fruits of his conquest, in whose success the favour of heaven was visible, and the continuance of whose prosperity was announced by the koran itself, which declares, that at the commencement of each century, a period which corresponded with the origin of the Ottoman monarchy, God will send to his people a chosen servant in order to renew their faith.
He did not, however, limit his ambition to victories over infidels. While he increased and cemented his power, the Seljukian emirs had, in many instances, weakened their states by dividing them among their children. The protection of the house of Osman was solicited in proportion as it grew formidable.
Ork-han was invited to arbitrate between the heirs of the neighbouring provinces, whose dominions became the price of his interference, and gradually and imperceptibly dropped into his possession, by force or by fraud, by marriage or cession.
Tindal, the translator of Cantemir, says p. But it appears to me, on the contrary, that the injunction relates wholly to the line of conduct which Orkhan was counselled to hold towards the Seljukian emirs.
See also Knolles, v. Cantemir, p. While the Ottoman empire was limited to Asia, its preponderance silenced jealousy, or it crushed opposition, but when the son of Orkhan had effected his passage across the Hellespont, and the Ottoman armies were engaged in frequent and obstinate warfare on the opposite continent, the Asiatic princes united their arms for the purpose of recovering their independence.
Their revolts greatly retarded the progress of the sultans in their fo- reign conquests, and protracted the final overthrow of the Greek empire: Gib- bon T.
Its inaccessible mountains, a branch of the Taurus, were the seat of the descendants of the pirates who were subdued by Pompey. They were afterwards the asylum of a few mutineers, who revolted from the ttandard of the emperor Gallienus, and preserved themselves for two hundred and thirty years in savage independence in the midst of the Roman armies. Color may be pensive, severe, exciting, appalling, gay, glowing, or sensual; in all these modes it is expressive: Above all, our author should have been careful how he attached the epithet "sensual" to the element of color—not only on account of the glaring inconsistency with his own previous assertion of the spirituality of painting— since it is certainly not merely by being flat instead of solid, representative instead of actual, that painting is—if it be—more spiritual than sculpture ; but also, because this idea of sensuality in color has had much share in rendering abortive the efforts of the modern German religious painters, inducing their abandonment of its consecrating, kindling, purifying power.
Lord Lindsay says, in a passage which we shall presently quote, that the most sensual as well as the most religious painters have always loved the brightest colors. Not so; no painters ever were more sensual than the modern French, who are alike insensible to, and incapable of color—depending altogether on morbid gradation, waxy smoothness of surface, and lusciousness of line, the real elements of sensuality wherever it eminently exists.
So far from good color being sensual, it saves, glorifies, and guards from all evil: Is it in sensuality that the visible world about us is girded with an eternal iris? As well call the sun itself, or the firmament, sensual, as the color which flows from the one, and fills the other. This is written in a spirit rather sympathetic than critical, and rightly illustrates the feeling of early art, even where it mistakes, or leaves unanalyzed, the technical modes of its expression.
It will be better, perhaps, that we confine our attention to the accounts of the three men who may be considered as sufficient representatives not only of the art of their time, but of all subsequent; Giotto, the first of the great line of dramatists, terminating in Raffaelle; Orcagna, the head of that branch of the contemplative school which leans towards sadness or terror, terminating in Michael Angelo; and Angelico, the head of the contemplatives concerned with the heavenly ideal, around whom may be grouped first Duccio, and the Sienese, who preceded him, and afterwards Pinturiccio, Perugino, and Leonardo da Vinci.
The fourth letter opens in the fields of Vespignano. The circumstances of the finding of Giotto by Cimabue are well known. The landscape is especially Giottesque, the trees being all boldly massed first with dark brown, within which the leaves are painted separately in light: Lord Lindsay has not done justice to the upper division—the Satan before God: The serenity of power in the principal figure is very noble; no expression of wrath, or even of scorn, in the look which commands the evil spirit.
The position of the latter, and countenance, are less grotesque and more demoniacal than is usual in paintings of the time; the triple wings expanded—the arms crossed over the breast, and holding each other above the elbow, the claws fixing in the flesh; a serpent buries its head in a cleft in the bosom, and the right hoof is lifted, as if to stamp.
We should have been glad if Lord Lindsay had given us some clearer idea of the internal evidence on which he founds his determination of the order or date of the works of Giotto. When no trustworthy records exist, we conceive this task to be of singular difficulty, owing to the differences of execution universally existing between the large and small [Pg 62] works of the painter.
In the fresco of the Death of the Baptist, in Santa Croce, which we agree with Lord Lindsay in attributing to the same early period, the face of the musician is drawn with great refinement, and considerable power of rounding surfaces— though in the drapery may be remarked a very singular piece of archaic treatment: But passing from these frescoes, which are nearly the size of life, to those of the Arena chapel at Padua, erected in , decorated in , which are much smaller, we find the execution proportionably less dexterous.
Of this famous chapel Lord Lindsay says—. They are full of fancy and invention; the composition is almost always admirable, although sometimes too studiously symmetrical; the figures are few and characteristic, each speaking for itself, the impersonation of a distinct idea, and most dramatically grouped and contrasted; the attitudes are appropriate, easy, and natural; the action and gesticulation singularly vivid; the expression is excellent, except when impassioned grief induces caricature: The head of our Saviour is beautiful throughout—that of the Virgin not so good—she is modest, but not very graceful or celestial: The animals too are always excellent, full of spirit and character.
This last characteristic is especially to be noticed. It is a touching proof of the influence of early years. Giotto was only ten years old when he was taken from following the sheep. In this respect he seems to differ from all other masters. It is generally affirmed that Dante, during this visit, inspired Giotto with his taste for allegory, and that the Virtues and Vices of the Arena were the first fruits of their intercourse; it is possible, certainly, but I doubt it,—allegory was the universal language of the time, as we have seen in the history of the Pisan school.
It ought to have been further mentioned, that the representation of the Virtues and Vices under these Giottesque figures continued long afterwards. We find them copied, for instance, on the capitals of the Ducal Palace at Venice, with an amusing variation on the "Stultitia," who has neither Indian dress nor club, as with Giotto, but is to the Venetians sufficiently distinguished by riding a horse. The notice of the frescoes at Assisi consists of little more than an enumeration of the subjects, accompanied by agreeable translations of the traditions respecting St.
Francis, embodied by St. The following account of the erection of the Campanile of Florence is too interesting to be omitted: He had intended it to be one hundred braccia , or one hundred and fifty feet high. I think not. We have more faith in Giotto than our author—and we will reply to his question by two others—whether, looking down upon Florence from the hill of San Miniato, his eye rested oftener and more affectionately on the Campanile of Giotto, or on the simple tower and spire of Santa Maria Novella?
Giotto sculptured with his own hand two of the bas-reliefs of this campanile, and probably might have executed them all. But the purposes of his life had been accomplished; he died at Florence on the 8th of January, The concluding notice of his character and achievement is highly valuable.
His history is a most instructive one. Calm and unimpassioned, he seems to have commenced his career with a deliberate survey of the difficulties he had to encounter and of his resources for the conflict, and then to have worked upon a system steadily and perseveringly, prophetically sure of victory.
His life was indeed one continued triumph,—and [Pg 67] no conqueror ever mounted to the Capitol with a step more equal and sedate. We find him, at first, slowly and cautiously endeavoring to infuse new life into the traditional compositions, by substituting the heads, attitudes, and drapery of the actual world for the spectral forms and conventional types of the mosaics and the Byzantine painters,—idealizing them when the personages represented were of higher mark and dignity, but in none ever outstepping truth.
Advancing in his career, we find year by year the fruits of continuous unwearied study in a consistent and equable contemporary improvement in all the various minuter though most important departments of his art, in his design, his drapery, his coloring, in the dignity and expression of his men and in the grace of his women—asperities softened down, little graces unexpectedly born and playing about his path, as if to make amends for the deformity of his actual offspring—touches, daily more numerous, of that nature which makes the world akin—and ever and always a keen yet cheerful sympathy with life, a playful humor mingling with his graver lessons, which affects us the more as coming from one who, knowing himself an object personally of disgust and ridicule, could yet satirize with a smile.
A few indeed there have been in all ages, monarchs of the mind and types of our Saviour, who have lived a twofold existence of action and contemplation in art, in song, in politics, and in daily life; of these have been Abraham, Moses, David, and Cyrus in the elder world—Alfred, Charlemagne, Dante, and perhaps Shakespeare, in the new,—and in art, Niccola Pisano, Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo.
But Giotto, however great as the patriarch of his peculiar tribe, was not of these few, and we ought not therefore to misapprehend him, or be disappointed at finding his Madonnas for instance less exquisitely spiritual than the Sienese, or those of Fra Angelico and some later painters, who seem to have dipped their pencils in the rainbow that circles the throne of God,—they are pure and modest, but that is all; on the other hand, where his Contemplative rivals lack utterance, he speaks most feelingly to the heart in his [Pg 69] own peculiar language of Dramatic composition—he glances over creation with the eye of love, all the charities of life follow in his steps, and his thoughts are as the breath of the morning.
This is all as admirably felt as expressed, and to those acquainted with and accustomed to love the works of the painter, it leaves nothing to be asked for; but we must again remind Lord Lindsay, that he has throughout left the artistical orbit of Giotto undefined, and the offense of his manner unremoved, as far as regards the uninitiated spectator.
It ought especially to have been stated, that the Giottesque system of chiaroscuro is one of pure, quiet, pervading daylight. No cast shadows ever occur, and this remains a marked characteristic of all the works of the Giotteschi.
Of course, all subtleties of reflected light or raised color are unthought of. Shade is only given as far as it is necessary to the articulation of simple forms, nor even then is it rightly adapted to the color of the light; the folds of the draperies are well drawn, but the entire rounding of them always missed—the general forms appearing flat, and terminated by equal and severe outlines, while the masses of ungradated color often seem to divide the figure into fragments.
Thus, the Madonna in the small tempera series of the Academy of Florence, is usually divided exactly in half by the dark mass of her blue robe, falling in a vertical line. The colors themselves are of good quality, never glaring, always gladdening, the reds inclining to orange more than purple, yellow frequent, the prevalent tone of the color groups warm; the sky always blue, the whole effect somewhat resembling that of the Northern painted glass of the same century—and chastened in the same manner by noble neutral tints or greens; yet all somewhat unconsidered and unsystematic, painful discords not unfrequent.
The material and ornaments of dress are never particularized, no imitations of texture or jewelry, yet shot stuffs of two colors frequent. The drawing often powerful, though of course uninformed; the mastery of mental expression by bodily motion, and of bodily motion, past and future, by a single gesture, altogether unrivaled even by Raffaelle;—it is obtained chiefly by throwing the emphasis always on the right line, admitting straight lines of great severity, and never dividing the main drift of the drapery by inferior folds; neither are accidents allowed to interfere—the garments fall heavily and in marked angles—nor are they affected by the wind, except under circumstances of very rapid motion.
The ideal of the face is often solemn—seldom beautiful; occasionally ludicrous failures occur: In the school work we find sweeter types of feature, greater finish, stricter care, more delicate outline, fewer errors, but on the whole less life. The dramatic power of his works, rightly understood, could receive no addition from artificial arrangement of shade, or scientific exhibition of anatomy, and we have reason to be deeply grateful when afterwards "inland far" with Buonaroti and Titian, that we can look back to the Giotteschi—to see those children.
We believe Giotto himself felt this—unquestionably he could have carried many of his works much farther in finish, had he so willed it; but he chose rather to multiply motives than to complete details. Thus we recur to our great principle of Separate gift.
The man who spends his life in toning colors must leave the treasures of his invention untold—let each have his perfect work; and while we thank Bellini and Leonardo for their deeply wrought dyes, and life-labored utterance of passionate thought; let us remember also what cause, but for the remorseless destruction of myriads of his works, we should have had to thank Giotto, in that, abandoning all proud effort, he chose rather to make the stones of Italy cry out with one voice of pauseless praise, and to fill with perpetual remembrance of the Saints he loved, and perpetual honor of the God he worshiped, palace chamber and convent cloister, lifted tower and lengthened wall, from the utmost blue of the plain of Padua to the Southern wildernesses of the hermit-haunted Apennine.
From the head of the Dramatic branch of Art, we turn to the first of the great Contemplative Triad, associated, as it most singularly happens in name as well as in heart; Orcagna—Arcagnuolo; Fra Giovanni—detto Angelico; and Michael Angelo: In that to the right, Death, personified as a female phantom, batwinged, claw-footed, her robe of linked mail [?
But all are alike heedless and unconscious, though the sand is run out, the scythe falling and their doom sealed. Meanwhile the lame and the halt, the withered and the blind, to whom the heavens are brass and life a burthen, cry on Death with impassioned gestures, to release them from their misery,—but in vain; she sweeps past, and will not hear them.
Between these two groups lie a heap of corpses, mown down already in her flight—kings, queens, bishops, cardinals, young men and maidens, secular and ecclesiastical—ensigned by their crowns, coronets, necklaces, miters and helmets—huddled together in hideous confusion; some are dead, others dying,—angels and devils draw the souls out of their mouths; that of a nun in whose hand a purse, firmly clenched, betokens [Pg 73] her besetting sin shrinks back aghast at the unlooked-for sight of the demon who receives it—an idea either inherited or adopted from Andrea Tafi.
The whole upper half of the fresco, on this side, is filled with angels and devils carrying souls to heaven or to hell; sometimes a struggle takes place, and a soul is rescued from a demon who has unwarrantably appropriated it; the angels are very graceful, and their intercourse with their spiritual charge is full of tenderness and endearment; on the other hand, the wicked are hurried off by the devils and thrown headlong into the mouths of hell, represented as the crater of a volcano, belching out flames nearly in the center of the composition.
These devils exhibit every variety of horror in form and feature. We wish our author had been more specific in his account of this wonderful fresco.
The portrait of Castruccio ought to have been signalized as a severe disappointment to the admirers of the heroic Lucchese: The group of mendicants occupying the center are especially interesting, as being among the first existing examples of hard study from the model: But the crowning stroke of feeling is dependent on a circumstance seldom observed.
As Castruccio [Pg 74] and his companions are seated under the shade of an orange grove, so the mendicants are surrounded by a thicket of teasels , and a branch of ragged thorn is twisted like a crown about their sickly temples and weedy hair.
We do not altogether agree with our author in thinking that the devils exhibit every variety of horror; we rather fear that the spectator might at first be reminded by them of what is commonly known as the Dragon pattern of Wedgwood ware. There is invention in them however—and energy; the eyes are always terrible, though simply drawn—a black ball set forward, and two-thirds surrounded by a narrow crescent of white, under a shaggy brow; the mouths are frequently magnificent; that of a demon accompanying a thrust of a spear with a growl, on the right of the picture, is interesting as an example of the development of the canine teeth noticed by Sir Charles Bell "Essay on Expression," p.
The angels we think generally disappointing; they are for the most part diminutive in size, and the crossing of the extremities of the two wings that cover the feet, gives them a coleopterous, cockchafer look, which is not a little undignified; the colors of their plumes are somewhat coarse and dark—one is covered with silky hair, instead of feathers. The souls they contend for are indeed of sweet expression; but exceedingly earthly in contour, the painter being unable to deal with the nude form.
On the whole, he seems to have reserved his highest powers for the fresco which follows next in order, the scene of Resurrection and Judgment. Our Saviour and the Virgin, seated side by side, each on a rainbow and within a vesica piscis, appear [Pg 75] in the sky—Our Saviour uttering the words of malediction with uplifted arm, showing the wound in his side, and nearly in the attitude of Michael Angelo, but in wrath, not in fury—the Virgin timidly drawing back and gazing down in pity and sorrow.
I never saw this co-equal juxtaposition in any other representation of the Last Judgment. The positions of our Saviour and of the Virgin are not strictly co-equal; the glory in which the Madonna is seated is both lower and less; but the equality is more complete in the painting of the same subject in Santa M. We believe Lord Lindsay is correct in thinking Orcagna the only artist who has dared it. We question whether even wrath be intended in the countenance of the principal figure; on the contrary, we think it likely to disappoint at first, and appear lifeless in its exceeding tranquillity; the brow is indeed slightly knit, but the eyes have no local direction.
They comprehend all things—are set upon all spirits alike, as in that word-fresco of our own, not unworthy to be set side by side with this, the Vision of the Trembling Man in the House of the Interpreter. The action is as majestic as the countenance—the right hand seems raised rather to show its wound as the left points at the same instant to the wound in the side , than in condemnation, though its gesture has been adopted as one of threatening—first and very nobly by Benozzo Gozzoli, in the figure of the Angel departing, looking towards Sodom—and afterwards, with unfortunate exaggeration, by Michael Angelo.
The head of St. John is peculiarly beautiful. The other Apostles look forward or down as in judgment—some in indignation, some in pity, some serene—but the eyes of St. John are fixed upon the Judge Himself with the stability of love—intercession and sorrow struggling for utterance with awe—and through both is seen a tremor of submissive astonishment, that the lips which had [Pg 76] once forbidden his to call down fire from heaven should now themselves burn with irrevocable condemnation.
The punishments of the wicked are portrayed in circles numberless around him. But in everything save horror this compartment is inferior to the preceding, and it has been much injured and repainted. We might have been spared all notice of this last compartment. Throughout Italy, owing, it may be supposed, to the interested desire of the clergy to impress upon the populace as forcibly as possible the verity of purgatorial horrors, nearly every representation of the Inferno has been repainted, and vulgar butchery substituted for the expressions of punishment which were too chaste for monkish purposes.
The infernos of Giotto at Padua, and of Orcagna at Florence, [Pg 77] have thus been destroyed; but in neither case have they been replaced by anything so merely disgusting as these restorations by Solazzino in the Campo Santo. Michael, all resolves itself into sympathy and love. We think it somewhat strange that the object of teaching by terror should be attributed to M. The objects of the two great painters were indeed opposed, but not in this respect. This he did in the simplest and most straightforward way, regardless of artistical reputation, and desiring only to be read and understood.
He addresses not the sympathies of his day, but the understanding of all time, and he treats the subject in the mode best adapted to bring every one of his own powers into full play. As [Pg 79] might have been expected, while the self-forgetfulness of Orcagna has given, on the one hand, an awfulness to his work, and verity, which are wanting in the studied composition of the Sistine, on the other it has admitted a puerility commensurate with the narrowness of the religion he had to teach.
Greater differences still result from the opposed powers and idiosyncrasies of the two men. Orcagna was unable to draw the nude—on this inability followed a coldness to the value of flowing lines, and to the power of unity in composition—neither could he indicate motion or buoyancy in flying or floating figures, nor express violence of action in the limbs—he cannot even show the difference between pulling and pushing in the muscles of the arm.
Angelo these conditions were directly reversed. Orcagna was therefore compelled to range his figures symmetrically in ordered lines, while Michael Angelo bound them into chains, or hurled them into heaps, or scattered them before him as the wind does leaves. Orcagna trusted for all his expression to the countenance, or to rudely explained gesture aided by grand fall of draperies, though in all these points he was still immeasurably inferior to his colossal rival.
As for his "embracing the whole world of passions which make up the economy of man," he had no such power of delineation—nor, we believe, of conception. The expressions on the inferno side are all of them varieties of grief and fear, differing merely in degree, not in character or operation: But Buonaroti knew that it was useless to concentrate interest in the countenances, in a picture of enormous size, ill lighted; and he preferred giving full play to the powers of line-grouping, for which he could have found no nobler field.
Each painter has his own sufficient dominion, and he who complains of the want of knowledge in Orcagna, or of the display of it in Michael Angelo, has probably brought little to his judgment of either. One passage more we must quote, well worthy of remark in these days of hollowness and haste, though we question the truth of the particular fact stated in the second volume respecting the shrine of Or San Michele.
Cement is now visible enough in all the joints, but whether from recent repairs we cannot say: Whatever he undertook to do, he did well—by which I mean, better than anybody else. His Loggia, in its general structure and its provisions against injury from wet and decay, is a model of strength no less than symmetry and elegance; the junction of the marbles in the tabernacle of Or San Michele, and the exquisite manual workmanship of the bas-reliefs, have been the theme of praise for five centuries; his colors in the Campo Santo have maintained a freshness unrivaled by those of any of his successors there;—nay, even had his mosaics been preserved at Orvieto, I am confident the commettitura would be found more compact and polished than any previous to the sixteenth century.
The secret of all this was that he made himself thoroughly an adept in the mechanism of the respective arts, and therefore his works have stood. Genius is too apt to think herself independent of form and matter—never was there such a mistake; she cannot slight either without hamstringing herself.
But the rule is of universal application; without this thorough mastery of their respective tools, this determination honestly to make the best use of them, the divine, the soldier, the statesman, the philosopher, the poet—however genuine their enthusiasm, however lofty their genius—are mere empirics, pretenders to crowns they will not run for, children not men—sporters with Imagination, triflers with Reason, with the prospects of humanity, with Time, and with God.
A noble passage this, and most true, provided we distinguish always between mastery of tool together with thorough strength of workmanship, and mere neatness of outside polish or fitting of measurement, of which ancient masters are daringly scornful.
Had their works, however inferior, been preserved, we might have had less difficulty in establishing the links between himself and his successor in the supremacy of the Semi-Byzantine school at Florence, the Beato Fra Angelico da Fiesole He was born at Vicchio, near Florence, it is said in , and was baptized by the name of Guido. Of a gentle nature, averse to the turmoil of the world, and pious to enthusiasm, though as free from fanaticism as his youth was innocent of vice, he determined, at the age of twenty, though well provided for in a worldly point of view, to retire to the cloister; he professed himself accordingly a brother of the monastery of S.
Domenico at Fiesole in , assuming his monastic name from the Apostle of love, S. It is satisfactory therefore to possess a fixed date in , the year in which he painted the great tabernacle for the Company of Flax-merchants, now removed to the gallery of the Uffizii. It represents the Virgin and child, with attendant Saints, on a gold ground—very dignified and noble, although the Madonna has not attained the exquisite spirituality of his later efforts.
Round this tabernacle as a nucleus, may be classed a number of paintings, all of similar excellence—admirable that is to say, but not of his very best, and in which, if I mistake not, the type of the Virgin bears throughout a strong family resemblance.
If the painter ever increased in power after this period he was then forty-three , we have been unable to systematize the improvement. We much doubt whether, in his modes of execution, advance were possible.
Men whose merit lies in record of natural facts, increase in knowledge; and men whose merit is in dexterity of hand increase in facility; but we much doubt whether the faculty of design, or force of feeling, increase after the age of twenty-five.
By Fra Angelico, who drew always in fear and trembling, dexterous execution had been from the first repudiated; he neither needed nor sought technical knowledge of the form, and the inspiration, to which his power was owing, was not less glowing in youth than in age. He is, in this respect, the exact reverse of Giotto; he was essentially a miniature painter, and never attained the mastery of muscular play in the features necessary in a full-sized drawing.
His habit, almost constant, of surrounding the iris of the eye by a sharp black line, is, in small figures, perfectly successful, giving a transparency and tenderness not otherwise expressible. But on a larger scale it gives a stony stare to the eyeball, which not all the tenderness of the brow and mouth can conquer or redeem. The face looks straightforward, quiet, Jupiter-like, and very sublime, owing to the smallness of the features in proportion to the head, the eyes being placed at about three-sevenths of the whole height, leaving four-sevenths for the brow, and themselves only in length about one-sixth of the breadth of the face, half closed, giving a peculiar appearance of repose.
The hair is short, golden, symmetrically curled, statuesque in its contour; the mouth tender and full of life: In all the treatment Fra Angelico maintains his assertion of the authority of abstract imagination, which, depriving his subject of all material or actual being, contemplates it as retaining qualities eternal only—adorned by incorporeal splendor. The eyes of the [Pg 85] beholder are supernaturally unsealed: Love, all fulfilling, and various modes of power, are alone expressed; the Virgin never shows the complacency or petty watchfulness of maternity; she sits serene, supporting the child whom she ever looks upon, as a stranger among strangers; "Behold the handmaid of the Lord" forever written upon her brow.
An approach to an exception in treatment is found in the Annunciation of the upper corridor of St. Many a Sabbath evening of bright summer have we passed in that lonely corridor—but not to the finding of faults, nor the provoking of smiles. The angel is perhaps something less majestic than is usual with the painter; but the Virgin is only the more to be worshiped, because here, for once, set before us in the verity of life.
No gorgeous robe is upon her; no lifted throne set for her; the golden border gleams faintly on the dark blue dress; the seat is drawn into the shadow of a lowly loggia. The face is of no strange, far-sought loveliness; the features might even be thought hard, and they are worn with watching, and severe, though innocent.
She stoops forward with her arms folded on her bosom: They who pass and repass in the twilight of that solemn corridor, need not the adjuration inscribed beneath: The eminent value of the tempera paintings results partly from their delicacy of line, and partly from the purity of color and force of decoration of which the material is capable.
This will be found invariably the case in minds constituted like his. Through the years Julian made many friends in Amsterdam and the Netherlands. His work is very well respected and it was a great moment when Rudi Fuchs bought his work for the collection of the Stedelijk Museum and prominently showed his painting in the Thin Ice exhibition alongside other great and famous international artists.
Where ever we went we would always have a lot of fun together and something would always happen. One day, years ago, the two of us went on a trip to Utrecht for a tour through the Rietveld Schroder House and to visit the pavilion with Rietveld furniture designs in the Centraal Museum. Walking through the exhibition I got ahead of Julian and was in another room when I heard a guard saying, "excuse me sir, can you please come away from. Being so far away from each other we would often e-mail, sometimes more than once a day.
We would know what the other was up to whether we were at home working in our studios or travelling around the world for exhibitions. Marie contacted me to explain that Julian was seriously ill, and I was on a plane to Auckland the next day.
We spent a week together with Marie, Leo, his family and his friends. Saying goodbye to Julian when I had to go was probably the most difficult thing ever, knowing that I would never see again my best friend and colleague Julian Dash per. One such incident had me heading to a small village, population 31, in the northeastern corner of Italy. In the Victoria State Library Map Collection with the help of a librarian I checked current maps, historical maps, indexes, encyclopedias and databases, yet there was no mention of this far-flung village anywhere.
It did not exist in this library basement stacked with topological renderings and encyclopedic lists of the world. Julian was fond of such slippage- that a corner of the world may have gone undetected, and I think he liked that I was calling to confirm he was sending me somewhere real.
Julian was also fond of this small village for its proximity to borders. He had once shown me photos of the invisible line separating east and west Europe- one foot in Italy, one foot in Slovenia. Julian liked the contorted logic this presented someone from an island in the middle of an oceanic expanse. I was reading the other day about modernism and thinking about Julian. It is certainly the case that Julian was.
I saw references to him in the discarded frames that lay over the top of one another in my studio- they appeared interlocked, forming a chain. Regardless of whether one argues for modernity as a single project, or whether one affirms modernities in the plural, I wondered as I read whether or not Julian had operated in the gap between one notion of modernism and many.
In retrospect, the comingling of conventions in his work- frames, devices, references to the canon and allusion to local art history, resumes, slides, telephones, drum kits, chain-links- seem to repel and attract modernism in the singular and plural sense.
Time has a complicated relationship with the museum and the white cube. At one moment these spaces suspend work in a timeless void, yet they are also the storehouses of time- marking it and reminding us of its passing- this is something I have tested in my own work, and something I believe Julian was also interested in.
I think Julian was interested in permanence, in time. I see evidence of this in the lengths of pine- the stretches leaning against a wall. These works toy with the question. To own this, to live with it, collect it, to consider its life beyond the exhibition throws up all sorts of interesting problems- does the work exist when not installed?
Is the work located in the relationship between the object, the wall and the floor? Is the shadow part of the work?
Is gravity listed as a material? It is certainly the case that these works operate, on some level, as a provocation of permanence. The temporal action of leaning something against a wall an act that is simultaneously understated and overstated flexes time -and now that Julian has gone, these works gain further significance in their poise, heightening our awareness of time passing.
Julian and I often shared photos and information on Cass as we gathered it. According to Wikipedia, it is referred to as the smallest town on earth, population 1. The title refers to the lone figure population 1 sitting on the train platform, waiting. A featureless face, no mouth, no eyes - nothing.
The act of rendering the figure mute tells us Angus was clearly interested in the landscape and the landscape alone. He turns our attention away from this obsession -this obsession with ourselves, and refocuses it on the lone figure who was there all along, sitting, waiting, travelling and thinking.
Nine copies of Speculation; three empty CD size Handi Boxes; two joined stretchers of Belgian linen which may or may not be painted with morphine; a box of brochures from the and Venice Biennales; correspondence A tall thin box containing press kits from European art fairs ; an exhibition poster; an A4 envelope containing maps, itinerary and various exhibition cards and invitations from Amsterdam; a Sunday Express article on Stonehenge, or perhaps on football; two proof sheets of photographs of sky; an empty paper bag.
A vinyl travel wallet containing: A letter from Jan asking, "How is the baby? I am looking at boxes of correspondence: Allen Maddox 14 Burlington Rd Napier. Dear julian, I received an invite today for your show at Real PicturesPhotographs! I liked the paintings- nice and loose, and certainly not like photos. A comment- one of the paintings had ultramarine blue tracery travelling down the picture in sort of lazy zig-zags. I show with Peter in November, and am working towards that. Ifyou felt inclined, you could drop me a line sometime.
Hope this finds you well. Good luck for your show at Real Pictures. Warm regards, Allen. Insta llation view Midwestern Unlike You and Me: Installation view Midwestern Unlike You and Me: The Gift from: No majestic mountains, no improbably green pastures- just a bland tangle of shopping malls and suburbia. I follow a dead-end street, past a rubber plant, a roofing company, a drainage service, and a plastics manufacturer, until I reach a white building behind a chain-link fence.
Inside is a kernel of a nation within a nation- a sneak preview of what a climate change exodus looks like. It was an apt choice. The tiny nation of Tuvalu, some 1o,ooo people living on six atolls and three reef islands, punched way above its weight at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Bringing a strand of negotiations to a halt, the Tuvaluan representatives led a coalition of small island states and least developed countries to propose what became known as the Tuvalu Copenhagen Protocol: As predicated sea level rises occur, low-lying Tuvalu and its neighbour Kiribati are expected to be among the first places to be rendered uninhabitable.
Basic physics suggests this may already be inevitable. With a population some 10 times that of Tuvalu, Kiribati is in a precarious situation. Beyond the immediate need for a future homeland, representatives of nation states like Kiribati and Tuvalu- which have made negligible contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide levels- know that the charges they make against heavier carbon emitters are effectively unanswerable. As COP15 made apparent once again, there is as yet no effective and binding decision-making mechanism for dealing with the way that the actions of some people in some parts of the world are jeopardising the existence of others elsewhere.
This is an ethical and political fault-line running right through the heart of the globalised modernity we have constructed for ourselves over the last few centuries. Or, as philosophers like to say, abyssal. So much for flux, flotation and lightness: Hervey put it -for unrelated reasonsback in the midst of our cultural nationalist phase. In the successful but footloose and impecunious Australian-Scots painter Ian Fairweather made a solo crossing of the Timor Sea, setting out from Darwin where he had been dossing in an abandoned ship.
On a self-assembled raft, poorly equipped, with no more than a libraryacquired knowledge of navigation, Fairweather commended himself to the perilous currents and tides of the Timor- and rather miraculously washed up, 16 days later, on the small island of Roti. Here, the exhausted "argonaut" was taken in by villagers and nursed back to health. At the heart of these shows is a serviceable reconstruction of the vessel Fairweather cobbled together out of driftwood and scrap, its flotation provided by empty fuel tanks from Japanese fighter planes, its sail a cast-off parachute Fig.
No mere museumification, Stevenson surrounds the raft - "rakit" to the Roti Islanders - with an inventory of recreated documentary and ethnographic artifacts - which serve as navigational aids helping to bring this postwar Oceanic adventure into an open-ended conversation with the very different currents and flows of our own era.
When Fairweather made his voyage, his requistioning of World War Two flotsam for peaceable purposes may have had a certain swords-to-ploughshares ring to it, in our own climate jittery century, the recycling of aviation fuel containers to float a windpowered vessel suggests another, just as recklessly hopeful, reappropriation.
Today, its oil and gas deposits have turned the Timor Sea into contested territory, while the Australian navy and coast guard patrol these waters in order to thwart the boatloads of undocumented migrants who attempt the hazardous crossing to Australia.
But if the Timor Sea is already a site of life and death struggles to make landfall, if our Pacific neighbours are currently entreating us for new homelands, then what is likely to become of our encircling seas and beachheads when the hard-core realities of climate change really start to weigh in? I was drawn to what Emma Bugden had to say in the previous issue of this journal about the concern with carbon emissions meaning that distance will likely matter for New Zealand cultural producers in new ways.
Over much the same span that social thinkers have been finessing their theories of globalisation, geoscientists have been composing their own concepts of global interconnectedness. They have been developing a vision of the earth as a. One in which here and there, now and then, are linked by vast circulations, conveyor belts and teleconnections.
However much it muddies the polemics of climate change politics, earth science cannot but help reminding us that anthropogenic inputs make a difference only because climate systems are inherently shifting and changeable, and that global climatic regimes have tipped and see-sawed many times in the human and prehuman past. And what kind of welcome, I want to ask, awaits those who have this sort of strangeness visited upon them?
Blue Displacement I was starting to think through the issue of climate change in relation to islands and coasts before I left New Zealand just over a decade ago- in the context of a little online show I put together called Shrinking Worlds. Though the results were mixed and the impact barely discernible, a few fortuitous juxtapositions nudged my thinking along.
In particular there was a conversation between some "digital sketches" John Lyall generated while he was working towards his installation Towards a Hyper-JeralArt,Aotearoa: My own spin on the sort of animated exchanges Lyall and Shepherd get up to in real life. In their own very distinct ways, both artists were engaging with the media through which Pacific islands were materially and symbolically constructed in the European expansionist phase, both probing the complicity of wide-eyed imaginings and hard-edged reason.
Cook had learned his trade serving on coal-carrying ships, and both the Endeavour and the Resolution were converted colliers- sturdy, shallow-drafted vessels designed to heft a good cargo. His voyages set out literally from the birthplace of the industrial revolution, from the time and the place of the coal-fired take-off which we now know to be the beginning of a self-reinforcing unearthing of sequestered carbon that would come to transform the globe in its entirety.
And so, it seemed to me, there were two shock waves simultaneously unleashed from the epicentre of. I was quite pleased with the idea of seeing the ocean as a medium of two distinct but implicated waves of transformation that ebbed around the earth and washed up on "our" beaches and coastlines. But already those insights feel like they belong to an earlier, simpler era, one in which the hard new facts of human-induced climate change seemed to declare the need for an aboutturn in the destiny for our modernity, a time when we could point the finger unambiguously at the biggest, heaviest carbon emitters.
This is, understandably, still the message of progressive climate change politics, and it still holds a lot of water. Anthropogenic climate change is indeed significant, and its causes are profoundly uneven in their historical, geographical and social distribution. The more complex picture, however, is of a global climate with cycles and rhythms and jitters at every conceivable spatia-temporal scale. Perhaps the most disturbing revelation of the last decade or so in the earth sciences has been the gathering evidence of the speed at which climate has changed in the past.
Each long wave movement in and out of an ice age now turns out to be rent by multitudes of rapid warmings and coo lings that saw the temperature in some parts of the world shift by up to 15 degrees Fahrenheit 9.
As glaciologist Richard Alley sums up: Lines of Defence Bawdsey, Suffolk February 12, 38 appliqued fiags on posts, year-long web-cast, photo archive, t ime-lapse film, www.
Betti na FurneetDylan Banarse. Lines of Defence Bawdsey, Suffolk October 15, 38 appliqued fiags on posts, year- long web-cast, photo archive, time- lapse fi lm, www. Even without abrupt climate change, we have had some reminders lately of these ongoing forces of the earth: These are human tragedies but they are also unexceptional sea-coast stuff, what happens habitually along the land-sea interface on a dynamic planet.
Even here in the UK where I now live- far from tectonic plate junctures, tropical cyclones and the climatic pulsing of the El Nifio Southern Oscillationthe waterfront is a troublesome and insecure zone. On the southeast coast the land is naturally sinking as a long term response to the last glacial period. As the north of the islands gradually tip back up, so the southeast correspondingly drops down, resulting in ongoing encroachment by the sea.
Sited on a stretch of eroding beachfront on the Suffolk coast, the five rows of flags run inland from the cliff face. Photographed every 15 minutes for a year beginning on January 15 zoos,. The last one falls on September 16, marking the permanent loss of 14 metres ofland in just eight months Fig. Global Flow, Planned Retreat "Planned" or "managed retreat" is the technical term for an environmental management strategy of permitting an eroding shoreline to recede at its own pace, sometimes involving deliberate breaching of former retaining walls and relocation of built structures.
Here in England, as in Byron Bay in New South Wales, Australia and many other places on the global littoral, those whose land and lives are left unprotected tend to feel abandoned, and some residents have taken coastal defence into their own hands. But if this is a big issue even before the oceans have manifest significant sea level increase, what can we expect with anticipated rises of up to two metres over the rest of this century, and the very real possibility of a seven metre rise if things go downhill rapidly in Greenland or West Antarctica?
The concept of planned retreat, I want to suggest, might well be bound for a much broader applicability than current coastal management. The predicament of the people of Tuvalu, Kiribati and other low-lying islands will also be shared by millions living in deltas and other low elevation coastal regions.
Elsewhere even hastier retreats are being considered. A geologist colleague is currently working on an evacuation plan for the city of Padang on the west coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. That fault-line where the India tectonic plate meets and slips beneath the Burma plate- the one that generated the Indian Ocean tsunami- is still "ripe" for further readjustment.
Pressure continues to mount in the fault which runs along the sea floor off Sumatra and when the next subsidence event takes place, it is predicted that the citizens ofPadang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate before the first tsunami washes over their city. Last time a killer tsunami struck, in , Padang was a small village, and two people lost their lives. My geologist friend is not optimistic. Unfortunately this is not an unusual predicament, especially if cyclone surges are also taken into account.
The same decades that have witnessed the emergence of an integrated model of dynamic earth processes in the geosciences have also seen unprecedented urban growth.
Such expansion is a gamble on the stability of the earth, but the geological eye-blink over which these massive changes in human settlement patterns have occurred gives us no kind of proxy. Planned retreat, along with its unruly near-relation, unplanned, chaotic or catastrophic flight, I want to argue, raises a whole set of issues for modern life that have until now been bypassed, down played, or treated as exceptions.
Modernity, it hardly needs to be said, is about forward momentum, a unidirectional, linear advance. But liquidness is looking like an unfortunate figuring for an era when one of the most hardcore and intransigent forces we face is rising or surging sea level. Those in the humanities who look also to the physical sciences know that flow is primarily a condition of the earth, the ground, the cosmos.
As Gilles Deleuze put it some decades ago: Or as my colleague Doreen Massey explains, looking past the current enthrallment with human migration and interconnectivity- and on to the ancient manoeuvring of life, water, air and rock- this is "a planet that has ever been a global mobility. As the flags fall, it is displacement that rules, and acquiescence that appears as much a part oflife as advancement, laying claim or holding fast.
Acknowledging the need for planned retreat at a range of sites, scales and velocities is about confronting events far beyond our control, even beyond our comprehension. But for the moment, the focus on retreat whether planned or haphazard works as a provocation.
It speaks of losses that are not redeemable into new gains or opportunities, of limitations that cannot simply be overcome by lightening up and playing fast and loose. Most of all it affords flow a weightiness of its own, gives liquidness the depth and imponderability it deserves. I think Robert Leonard is right about distance being transformed from something sublime to something concrete, and that goes as much for flow, mutability, becoming, and all those other currently popular process words.
Long before his esteemed critical phase, Kant launched into commentary on the Lisbon earthquake, that fatal combination of seismicity and tsunami that demolished the Portuguese capital and sent literal and figurative shudders through Europe. ZJ Considered at the time the most momentous event since the fall of the Roman Empire, the Lisbon disaster caught Europeans at a critical juncture when the old faith in the divine ordination of the world was growing shaky, and the modern sense of "sovereign" self was new and fragile.
Kant himself felt the shock profoundly, and it has been argued that his later reprocessing of the encounter with extreme natural forces into the notion of the sublime was a way of redeeming the physical horror of Lisbon from a nihilating experience into an affirmative one.
Wild sea-coast stuff, we might say, sedimented into modernity at its core. At the other end of our modernity, the convergence of socio-political globalisation and physical globalism has helped democratise the shockwaves of a deterritorialising earth. Tuvalu and Kiribati can attract global attention, partly because the right for a nation-state not to be laid waste by the actions of others is at the heart of modern geopolitical lore, and in part because the fate of these islands is a premonition of trouble ahead for the rest of us.
But this does not mean that distinctions between centre and periphery are melting away. At least not yet. According to simulation models, the loss of agricultural production due to excessive heat and drought will fall hardest on South Asia, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Mexico and on the arid regions of Africa, while the already wealthy northern temperate regions look set to actually gain in productivity. And grim. According to Gaia theorist James Lovelock, one of a growing number of scientists who believe that it may already be too late to avoid dropping over the tipping point, New Zealand looks like one of the best places on the planet to be.
Temperate, isolated and relatively thinly populated, these islands are well-positioned to sustain viable agriculture and settlement, and could therefore function as a "lifeboat for humanity". Or as Allen Curnow once put it: Z8 And so the old island and landfall topos lives on. But all that antipodean yearning for belonging, security and identity was fraught enough the first time round, without redeeming it for an apocalyptic and survivalist agenda.
And feels a little too much, in its yawning catastrophism, like another bout of sublimity. An emaciated and wild-eyed stranger comes to an island from somewhere over the sea, unanticipated, uninvited, barely able to stand upright. But he is looked after, made welcome, offered a place to stay while he gets his bearings Exorbitant Generosity: In recalling the powhiri welcome , Lawrence Simmons, Heather Worth and Graham Smith aptly remind us of the welcome that the French explorer de Surville and his scurvy-ailing crew received from the Maori community years earlier.
Today, in political discourses around the environment, it is the offer of a new home to the Tuvaluan people by the government of New Zealand that grabs the attention. This reception is referred to again and again as the first official acknowledgement of the plight of climate change refugees- thus setting a precedent for responding to the many displacements to come. It would be gratifying, of course, to be at the cutting edge of hospitality in the era of accelerating anthropogenic environmental change.
The refugeasylum rhetoric has been further tainted for the Tuvaluans by the unpopular and rejected proposal of the Howard administration to locate an Australian offshore detention centre on one of their islands. There is another tension, however, which may ultimately be even more consequential. At global forums like COP15 all negotiating parties are compelled to play a numbers game, to partake in discourses of per capita emission, gross domestic product, greenhouse gas levels, carbon trading and capping, technology transfer and the like.
And nowhere is the cost-benefit analytic more pervasive than in the arena of climate change politics: But this is where the notion of an inherently dynamic planet and the idea of hospitality might be brought into a strange and hopeful proximity.
As even the most number-crunching geoscientists readily admit, this planet of ours exceeds all attempts at calculation and prediction: Our planet, in other words, is ultimately unknowable because it is constantly inventive. Likewise, theorists of hospitality and generosity speak of the arrival of a stranger as an event that overflows all programmatic understanding, the incoming of the other breaking through our familiar circuits of knowability and anticipation.
Moreover, if discourses of hospitality confound economic logic with the incalculable advent of the stranger, so too do the new contemporary earth sciences trace the contours of a world whose variabilities and volatilities will sooner or later give rise to "estrangement".
And perhaps this is why those who live habitually with the irregular rhythms and precariousness of oceans or deserts or ice floes tend to make such a virtue of hospitality, of welcoming those who are strange or estranged.
This then, is my other acquiescence: There is, of course, no easy fit, no necessary complicity, no obligatory passage between a convulsive planet and a warm welcome. It is just the scene of another invention, one more reworking of the materials offered by real and imaginary reefs and floating islands. Today, the sea-coast, the global littoral, appears more than ever the site of contestation, of uncertainty and of perplexing encounters. Even if the actual meetings rarely occur literally on the beach but are played out in suburban streets, in detention centres or immigration departments, at conference negotiating tables or on Internet bulletin boards.
The old literary and artistic culture of outcast eyes looking longingly seaward, as Francis Pound pointed out, tended to be as much about craving for an answering gaze or voice than it was about really getting to grips with ocean, winds, rocks and stuff. By making an issue out of the concrete, dynamical and precarious nature of the interface between land and sea, by stressing that this blue-green planet unsettles as a matter of course and may now be in the process of unsettling more than ever we return to the figure of the stranger.
Putting vulnerable bodies and volatile earth processes in proximity takes us back as much as forward, reminding us that the oldest gift, the most enduring of all gifts, may be the offering of a stable ground, a place to rest for those whose worlds have let them down. As Alphonso Lingis puts it, the primordial act of generosity or hospitality is the welcome offered by one who still stands upright to another who has lost their footing: For one thing, it is the act of offering hospitality, of being able to welcome others, that helps makes us feel we are at home, and that the ground we inhabit is indeed "supportive".
Which makes giving way part of the trick of standing upright here- or anywhere. But then again, playing host to a stranger or one who has been estranged by events is also a reminder that all of us are vulnerable and exposed, and that being at home, having terrestrial support to offer, is always to some degree provisional.
And that the roles of host and guest are not fixed for all time but apt to change places. As we well know, European explorers - Cook, de Surville and many others -relied heavily on local hospitality to stay upright and afloat in the Pacific, as did so many later visitors and settlers.
There is no region with a prerogative on generous gestures, as Michel Serres has noted in relation to the pronouncements of Marcel Mauss and other ethnographers of the gift: But the circuits of gifting and exchanging that Stevenson traces and enacts around the globe know of no such centre. And in this way, both gift and economic exchange play through each other, neither being privileged, just as centre and so-called periphery meet, transact, change places.
Or so we might surmise, knowing that Serres is a former sailor whose feel for the ocean and the generative force of its wanderings is perhaps unique amongst contemporary philosophers.
Today, back in the aquamarine eye of the Pacific, a blue displacement is in process that in its own way promises to perturb the closed circuitry of exchange and the obsessive accounting for debts and liabilities. Without yet any firm offer of a new home, and believing increasingly in its coming demise, Kiribati has made a gesture for which there can be no reciprocation. It was our contribution to humanity. Or at least not from the most contrary leanings along the Left Bank.
Georges Bataille, for one, would have loved it. Just as in The Accursed Share, where the survival of the planet will be the unforeseen, unintended consequence of a gift-giving energy expenditure oriented not around weapons build-up but around a squandering giveaway of wealth, so too in the future we can posit sustainability as the unintended aftereffect of a politics of givingY What Bataille might not have guessed was that such an extravagant act of generosity would come from one of the "poorest" countries on earth.
That exorbitance would irrupt from the periphery. But at a time when the juncture between land and sea is becoming ever more agitated, it might just be those places whose histories are already deep in wild sea-coast stuff who are most willing to let loose, those who are most familiar with the ebb and flow of terrestrial boundaries who might just dream up some forms of give and take fitting for the age of acquiescence.
For those of us sojourning on the bigger islands to the south, there was a time recently when new forms of connectivity and reciprocity had begun to look favourably our way. But just when "those endless seas were starting to shrink" in a metaphorical sense, 43 we discovered that climate change was literally expanding the oceans.
What forms of home-coming and estrangement, what relationships between hosts and guests will emerge from this liquidation of our modernity remain to be seen, but it looks like our tendency to be "teased into inventiveness by the sea" is only just warming up.
But the "in-vent-ion" he affirms above all else is a literal in-coming. Not another "local production" like the old self-possessed nationalist striving, but the event of a visitation from beyond, a never-fully-foreseeable arrival from elsewhere.
And today they are back, together, and with a blazing new intensity, as we all face the monstrous "if" of unstable ground, heavy weather and rising seas. Kate Sheppard, "The o. Allen Curnow Harmondsworth: Penguin, , A Journal of Art and Culture, no. Barton, 17g. A History of the Land New York: The Guilford Press, The reference is to C. Keith Sinclair Auckland: University of Auckland, Nigel Clark, Shrinking Worlds: Islands, lnterconnectivity, Climate Change Christchurch: The Physics Room, , http: See Claudia Bell, Excavating the Past: Michael Shepherd, Artist Wellington: Gilt Edge Publishing, ch 5.
Princeton University Press, , Polity Press, Bauman, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition London: Athlone Press, , 1st , 2. Verso, , Doreen Massey, For Space London: Sage, , g8. Lines of Defence and a War of Words,".
Kathryn Yusoff London: The Arts Catalyst, , lOg. John Richardson Hong Kong: Philopschy Press, , 1st A Beacon in the Smog, August 3, , http: Keith Sinclair, cited in C. Jacques Derrida, Of Hospitality Stanford: Stanford University Press, , Powhiri for Jacques Derrida," in Derrida Downunder, eds. Dunmore Press, , Cited in Simmons, Worth and Smith, Pacific Access Category, http: Current Affairs and Culture, 30 June 30, 2oog, http: University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre, , http: Rediscovering Our Sea of Islands, eds.
University of the South Pacific, Indiana University Press,, , g. Michel Serres, Hermes: Literature, Science, Philosophy Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, , Marcel Mauss, The Gift London: Routledge, 1st Energy, Religion and Sustainability Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, , New Zealand, , Curnow, 6o. Allan Sekula mins, colour. It could be anything, yet this opening shot triggers the narrative and serves as an allegory for the sequence of images to come, assuming an iconic dimension.
The abstract substance is oil: Oil is the catalyst of the film and stands for the quality of certain commodities: The song is not a moral condemnation of the existence of nuclear weapons, but rather an ode to the anxiety that they create in the individual with an overarching existentialist tone. The Lottery of the Sea unfolds around a series oflocations and events involving ports and maritime places around the world Galicia, Yokohama, Panama, Los Angeles, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Athens, New York , addressing issues of geopolitical conflict that govern globalisation and the sea.
Throughout, there are a number of detours: These digressive, drifting scenes build the tone and the social and political fabric of the global themes the film touches upon: The first image is of the Prestige oil spill incident off the Galician coast. The sinking of an oil tanker in November caused the pollution of thousands of kilometres of coastline in Spain and France, making it the largest environmental disaster in Spain and one that severely damaged its fishing industry.
The Greek-operated, Bahamas-flagged oil tanker had a Liberian owner and had been chartered by a Swiss-based Russian oil company. Disagreements between the Spanish, French and Portuguese governments, none of which allowed the tanker to dock in their ports, caused further damage, as the ship gradually deteriorated and eventually sank, releasing over 20 million gallons of crude oil into the sea.
We hear in the film that Greek-operated ships are those carrying the "invisible" goods: The voiceover denounces the "attenuated and disguised" nationality, saying, The flag flying from the stern is Liberian, or Panamanian-nations created by the United States-or that of other desperately poor countries: All of this saves money, avoids regulation, makes it harder to assign blame when accidents happen American lawyers working for the shipping industry invented this convenient system of disguises, institutionalizing it after the Second World War, and helping the Greeks to rebuild their shattered merchant fleet from the immense surplus left over from the great convoys of the North Atlantic.
At the end of film the voiceover concludes, "A year after the Spanish oil spill, the union of Greek shipowners is still defending self-regulation: That the population that came to save the situation was mainly made up of college students makes it a tale of hope in a new generation, forceful, engaged and altruist, that genuinely cares and takes action. Belonging to a generation of student radicals in os America, Sekula is drawn to the subject of activism.
Portraying the Seattle anti-corporate protesters, Sekula pays homage to the volunteers keeping politicians at bay , who spearhead a new kind of popular resistance to the rising hegemony of neo-liberal ideology. Here they are portrayed as working tirelessly, making common cause with the local sailors and inhabitants of the affected villages, who reciprocate by taking them into their homes and feeding them. Sekula depicts this as an organic if insufficient solution that stands in stark contrast to the lack of resolve of the governments who underestimated the scale of the problem and disregarded their responsibility while arguing over who was to blame.
TheLotteryoftheSea moves from]une through August , and picks up on this momentum and the sense of urgency felt in the United States and Europe. Democracy is the underlying theme throughout the film, and appears on numerous occasions. It is introduced early on in the stopover in Athens and speaking of ancient "agora" as the "legendary birthplace of democracy, stepping-stones of philosophy, market stalls of small traders, political platforms.
Fragmentos para una Opera" Black Tide: Fragments for an Opera.
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