Label: MCA Records - MCD-18822 Format: CD Compilation Country: Europe Genre: Pop
Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoiremusic history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of MusicClara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned. Wide Open Spaces. Harmonika Stoicheia The Harmonics of Aristoxenus. Nonetheless these elemental components link precisely with four of the most common musical elements: Radio navigation. If I Had No Loot. Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry informationsuch as sound and imagesby systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through spacesuch as their amplitudefrequencyphaseor pulse width.
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Indie , Casual , Simulation , Walking Simulator. Indie , Pixel Graphics , Puzzle , Minimalist. Production Line: Radio communication service and Radio communication station. History of radio. Radio broadcasting. Two-way radio. Radio navigation. Radio-frequency heating. Radio portal. Retrieved Puri Solid State Physics and Electronics. To avoid in future any misunderstandings upon this point, we have decided to adopt the term " radiophone ", proposed by M.
Mercadier, as a general term signifying the production of sound by any form of radiant energy Lodge, who preceded Marconi in making experiments in what may be called "ray" telegraphy or radiotelegraphy by a year or two, has devised a new method of sending and receiving the messages.
The reader will understand that in the radiotelegraph electric waves forming the signals of the message start from the sending instrument and travel in all directions like rays of light from a lamp, only they are invisible. Wireless Network Performance Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Modern personal radio systems. IEE telecommunications series, Institution of Electrical Engineers. Sarkar, Robert Mailloux, Arthur A. Oliner, M. Salazar-Palma, Dipak L. Sterling, Encyclopedia of Radio 3 — Volume, Routledge — , p. A Concise History, Palgrave Macmillan — , p. Bernard Carlson, Innovation as a Social Process: Supreme Court". The General: David Sarnoff and the Rise of the Communications Industry. New York: Crystal Clear: Living Stereo: Histories and Cultures of Multichannel Sound.
Bloomsbury Publishing USA. Calhoun Third Generation Wireless Systems. Artech House. Archived from the original on Westview Press, Pluto Press, Remote Control".
Selected Tesla Patents". Radio category. International Morse code. Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line. Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division. Category Outline Portal Commons. Analog and digital audio broadcasting. Timbre, sometimes called "color" or "tone color" is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument.
Even if different players of the same instrument play the same note, their notes might sound different due to differences in instrumental technique e. Even two instrumentalists playing the same note on the same instrument one after the other may sound different due to different ways of playing the instrument e.
The physical characteristics of sound that determine the perception of timbre include the spectrum , envelope and overtones of a note or musical sound. For electric instruments developed in the 20th century, such as electric guitar, electric bass and electric piano , the performer can also change the tone by adjusting equalizer controls , tone controls on the instrument, and by using electronic effects units such as distortion pedals. The tone of the electric Hammond organ is controlled by adjusting drawbars.
Expressive qualities are those elements in music that create change in music without changing the main pitches or substantially changing the rhythms of the melody and its accompaniment. Performers, including singers and instrumentalists, can add musical expression to a song or piece by adding phrasing , by adding effects such as vibrato with voice and some instruments, such as guitar, violin, brass instruments and woodwinds , dynamics the loudness or softness of piece or a section of it , tempo fluctuations e.
Expression is achieved through the manipulation of pitch such as inflection, vibrato, slides etc. Expression therefore can be seen as a manipulation of all elements in order to convey "an indication of mood, spirit, character etc.
In music, form describes how the overall structure or plan of a song or piece of music,  and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. From the s onward, Western pop and rock songs are often in verse-chorus form , which is based around a sequence of verse and chorus "refrain" sections, with new lyrics for most verses and repeating lyrics for the choruses.
Popular music often makes use of strophic form , sometimes in conjunction with the twelve bar blues. In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music , Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration.
Scholes states that European classical music had only six stand-alone forms: Where a piece cannot readily be broken down into sectional units though it might borrow some form from a poem, story or programme , it is said to be through-composed. Such is often the case with a fantasia , prelude , rhapsody , etude or study , symphonic poem , Bagatelle , impromptu , etc. This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units  that may be referred to by letters but also often have generic names such as introduction and coda , exposition, development and recapitulation , verse, chorus or refrain , and bridge.
Introductions and codas, when they are no more than that, are frequently excluded from formal analysis. All such units may typically be eight measures long. Sectional forms include:. Medley , potpourri is the extreme opposite, that of "unrelieved variation": Examples include orchestral overtures , which are sometimes no more than a string of the best tunes of the musical theatre show or opera to come. This form uses two sections AB In 18th-century Western classical music, "simple binary" form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be in different musical keys but same rhythm, duration and tone.
The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety to permit a dance to be extended for as long as desired. This form has three parts. In Western classical music a simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the first ABA. Often, the first section is repeated AABA. This approach was popular in the 18th-century operatic aria , [ citation needed ] and was called da capo i.
Later, it gave rise to the bar song , with the B section then often referred to as the "middle eight". A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained form with a beginning and an end of course. This form has a recurring theme alternating with different usually contrasting sections called "episodes". A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a "development" of it.
A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso. It is normally used in a round. Theme and Variations: An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne , was that of the ground bass — a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants.
This is said by Scholes to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. Developmental forms are built directly from smaller units, such as motifs.
In Classical pieces that are based on motifs, the motif is usually combined, varied and worked out in different ways, perhaps having a symmetrical or arch-like underpinning and a progressive development from beginning to end.
By far the most important developmental form in Western classical music is Sonata form. This form, also known as sonata form, first movement form, compound binary, ternary and a variety of other names, [ example needed ] developed from the binary-formed dance movement described above but is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation.
Usually, but not always, the "A" parts Exposition and Recapitulation , respectively may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the "B" part the development — thus e.
This developmental form is generally confined to certain sections of the piece, as to the middle section of the first movement of a sonata, though 19th-century composers such as Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner made valiant efforts to derive large-scale works purely or mainly from the motif. Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites.
Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute , carved from a cave bear femur , is thought to be at least 40, years old.
Instruments such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments , such as the Ravanahatha , have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.
The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth , with the invention of music, with Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period , but the evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps , flutes and double clarinets were played.
Cymbals  frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music , including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments. Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.
Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler.
Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal provides information about how new scales can be formed by modal shifting of the tonic from an existing scale. Carnatic music, popular in the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are also many songs emphasising love and other social issues. Chinese classical music , the traditional art or court music of China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years.
It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres.
Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture have discovered common links in theatrical and musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews and those of later Greeks and Romans.
The common area of performance is found in a "social phenomenon called litany ," a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany, "Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition: Music was an important part of social and cultural life in ancient Greece.
Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater. Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development.
Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes , that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music. The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.
The medieval era to , which took place during the Middle Ages , started with the introduction of monophonic single melodic line chanting into Roman Catholic Church services. Musical notation was used since Ancient times in Greek culture , but in the Middle Ages, notation was first introduced by the Catholic church so that the chant melodies could be written down, to facilitate the use of the same melodies for religious music across the entire Catholic empire.
The only European Medieval repertory that has been found in written form from before is the monophonic liturgical plainsong chant of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant.
Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song non-religious songs. Renaissance music c. Around , the printing press was invented, which made printed sheet music much less expensive and easier to mass-produce prior to the invention of the printing press, all notated music was hand-copied.
The increased availability of sheet music helped to spread musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Musicians and singers often worked for the church, courts and towns.
Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music. By the middle of the 15th century, composers wrote richly polyphonic sacred music, in which different melody lines were interwoven simultaneously. As musical activity shifted from the church to the aristocratic courts, kings, queens and princes competed for the finest composers.
Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France. They are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy. Other countries with vibrant musical activity included Germany, England, and Spain. The Baroque era of music took place from to , as the Baroque artistic style flourished across Europe; and during this time, music expanded in its range and complexity. Baroque music began when the first operas dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra were written.
During the Baroque era, polyphonic contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the Medieval era. German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings , brass , and woodwinds , as well as for choirs and keyboard instruments such as pipe organ , harpsichord , and clavichord.
During this period several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue , the invention , the sonata , and the concerto. The music of the Classical period to aimed to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: Music from the Classical period has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than the Baroque music which preceded it.
The main style was homophony ,  where a prominent melody and a subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost voicelike and singable. New genres were developed, and the fortepiano , the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the main keyboard instrument.
Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: Others main kinds were the trio , string quartet , serenade and divertimento. The sonata was the most important and developed form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of sonata is completely distinct.
All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata. The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized. In place of the basso continuo group of the Baroque era, which consisted of harpsichord, organ or lute along with a number of bass instruments selected at the discretion of the group leader e.
The Baroque era improvised chord-playing of the continuo keyboardist or lute player was gradually phased out between and One of the most important changes made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts.
The aristocracy still played a significant role in the sponsorship of concerts and compositions, but it was now possible for composers to survive without being permanent employees of queens or princes.
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