Label: Gordy - G-906,Gordy - 906,Gordy - Gordy 906 Format: Vinyl LP, Mono Country: US Genre: Non-Music Style: Spoken Word, Political, Poetry, Speech, Education
Compilation of the Statements of James Earl Ray: My father did, but I never made one. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. Roosevelt Hugh S. Episcopal Church. A large crowd of mourners follow the casket of Dr.
A march and rally in support of abortion rights for women draws several hundred thousand people to demonstrations in Washington, D. Supreme Court was about to consider the George Washington Carver was an agricultural scientist and inventor who developed hundreds of products using peanuts though not peanut butter, as is often claimed , sweet potatoes and soybeans.
Born an African-American slave a year before the practice was outlawed, Carver left Granted statehood in , Washingtonwas namedin honor ofGeorge Washington; it is the only U. This Day In History. March on Washington. King Leads the March on Washington.
Selma to Montgomery March. March from Selma to Montgomery. Selma to Montgomery March The Selma to Montgomery march was part of a series of civil-rights protests that occurred in in Alabama, a Southern state with deeply entrenched racist policies.
Booker T. Washington Born a slave on a Virginia farm, Washington rose to become one of the most influential African-American intellectuals of the late 19th century. George Washington Carver George Washington Carver was an agricultural scientist and inventor who developed hundreds of products using peanuts though not peanut butter, as is often claimed , sweet potatoes and soybeans.
Photograph by Horace Cort. Photograph courtesy Associated Press. Amelia Earhart Meet the famous female flier. Albert Einstein Meet the brilliant physicist. History and Culture Abraham Lincoln - Ep. Innovators These scientists made history! Next National Train Day. King suffered from depression through much of his life. In his adolescent years, he initially felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South.
At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. On the ride home to Atlanta by bus, he and his teacher were ordered by the driver to stand so that white passengers could sit down.
King initially refused but complied after his teacher told him that he would be breaking the law if he did not submit. During this incident, King said that he was "the angriest I have ever been in my life.
At that time, many students had abandoned further studies to enlist in World War II. Due to this, Morehouse was eager to fill its classrooms. At the age of 15, King passed the exam and entered Morehouse. The summer before his last year at Morehouse, in , the year-old King chose to enter the ministry. He had concluded that the church offered the most assuring way to answer "an inner urge to serve humanity. In , King graduated at the age of 19 from Morehouse with a B.
Proctor who went on to become well-known preachers in the black church. King became fond of the street because a classmate had an aunt who prepared collard greens for them, which they both relished.
King once reproved another student for keeping beer in his room, saying they had shared responsibility as African Americans to bear "the burdens of the Negro race.
The daughter had been involved with a professor prior to her relationship with King. King planned to marry her, but friends advised against it, saying that an interracial marriage would provoke animosity from both blacks and whites, potentially damaging his chances of ever pastoring a church in the South.
He continued to have lingering feelings toward the woman he left; one friend was quoted as saying, "He never recovered. King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.
William Hunter Hester. Powell asked fellow student Coretta Scott if she was interested in meeting a Southern friend studying divinity. They went out for dates in his green Chevy. After the second date, King was certain Scott possessed the qualities he sought in a wife.
She had been an activist at Antioch in undergrad, where Carol and Rod Serling were schoolmates. Also in Boston, King befriended a small cadre of local ministers his age, and sometimes guest pastored at their churches, including the Reverend Michael Haynes, associate pastor at Twelfth Baptist Church in Roxbury and younger brother of jazz drummer Roy Haynes.
The young men often held bull sessions in their various apartments, discussing theology, sermon style, and social issues. Decades later, an academic inquiry in October concluded that portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly.
In March , Claudette Colvin —a fifteen-year-old black schoolgirl in Montgomery—refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in violation of Jim Crow laws , local laws in the Southern United States that enforced racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; E. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue because the incident involved a minor.
Nine months later on December 1, , a similar incident occurred when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses. The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. The group was inspired by the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham , who befriended King after he attended a Graham crusade in New York City.
Harris , Walter E. Fauntroy , C. Izola Curry —a mentally ill black woman who thought that King was conspiring against her with communists—stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. King underwent emergency surgery with three doctors: Cordice ; he remained hospitalized for several weeks. Curry was later found mentally incompetent to stand trial.
Sullivan ; the case was litigated in reference to the newspaper advertisement " Heed Their Rising Voices ". Wachtel founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the "Gandhi Society for Human Rights. He was displeased with the pace that President Kennedy was using to address the issue of segregation. In , King and the Gandhi Society produced a document that called on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and issue an executive order to deliver a blow for civil rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation.
Kennedy did not execute the order. He warned King to discontinue these associations and later felt compelled to issue the written directive that authorized the FBI to wiretap King and other SCLC leaders. Edgar Hoover feared the civil rights movement and investigated the allegations of communist infiltration.
King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by Southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the civil rights movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early s.
King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities, who sometimes turned violent. King was criticized by many groups during the course of his participation in the civil rights movement.
This included opposition by more militant blacks such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention.
When King first visited on December 15, , he "had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel. According to King, "that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city" after he left town. But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail. After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate.
King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts. After Albany, King sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev.
Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins , openly violating laws that they considered unjust. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations. During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor , used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children.
In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest  out of King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: Augustine, Florida. However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them. Augustine , including a delegation of rabbis and the year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested.
During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of was passed. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom , which took place on August 28, Farmer Jr.
Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation.
However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than , Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and Walter Reuther , president of the United Automobile Workers , to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause. The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.
Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks.
The group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. The march made specific demands: At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D. King delivered a minute speech, later known as " I Have a Dream ". I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
In , Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it. The first attempt to march on March 7, , was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators.
This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement. King, however, was not present. On March 5, King met with officials in the Johnson Administration in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators.
He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.
King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order.
The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. In , after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at S.
King later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, , were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs.
Rioting seemed very possible. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result. When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson , a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization.
A Time to Break Silence. A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: King also opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home.
The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.
In a letter to Coretta Scott, he said: King also stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar Lowenstein , William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas , with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King to run against President Johnson in the United States presidential election.
King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.
At the U. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft. I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood.
I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both. Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists,  Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort.
The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from. We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.
King traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans. Chaos or Community? He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity.
Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black. The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D.
The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered. Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the National Mall and established a camp they called " Resurrection City.
The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day. On April 2 King led what had been a peaceful downtown march in support of the sanitation workers, until bands of teenagers began smashing random store windows, and Memphis police attacked some of the teens, and also activists with nightsticks.
The activists lost control of the demonstration, called it off, and rushed King to an automobile for his own safety. And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place.
I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at Room so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite.
Play it real pretty. King was fatally shot by James Earl Ray at 6: The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D. President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader.
In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity.
He was using the alias Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, , though he recanted this confession three days later. He was sentenced to a year prison term. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery.
They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.
Pepper represented the King family in the trial. In , the U. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented. The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself.
Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray. King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people.
On February 4, , at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry.
I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter.
But I just want to leave a committed life behind. Beginning in , cities such as St. Louis, Missouri , and states established annual holidays to honor King. Following President George H. Day was officially observed in all fifty U. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day. King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4.
In , Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony. In another sermon, he stated:. Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry.
I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the s,  and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early s.
King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early s. King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers.
The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance , arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms. In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom , which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence.
King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting. King was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".
In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in , hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.
Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary. King was an avid supporter of Native American rights. Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race. Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society.
From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or to feel remorse for this shameful episode.
Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it. King assisted Native American people in south Alabama in the late s. The South had so many seemingly outlandish racial problems: In this case, light-complexioned Native children were allowed to ride school buses to previously all white schools, while dark-skinned Native children from the same band were barred from riding the same buses.
He promptly responded and through his intervention the problem was quickly resolved. He put into words his belief that one must not use force in this struggle "but match the violence of his opponents with his suffering. Martin Luther King was just 26 years old when he led his first political protest—the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. In , he was shot and killed on a motel balcony by racist prison escapee James Earl Ray. He was 39 years old. It faced immediate resistance. The push to celebrate Martin Luther King with a national holiday became a political movement in itself.
Union leaders encouraged the idea—a critic of capitalism, King had always worked closely with unions and was shot while supporting a strike in Memphis. Conyers had continued to raise the bill at every Congress since , and it eventually passed in a to 90 vote in
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