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House to House: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, — Упаковка должна быть такой же, как упаковка этого товара в розничных магазинах, за исключением тех случаев, когда товар является изделием ручной работы или был упакован производителем в упаковку не для розничной продажи, например в коробку без маркировки или в пластиковый пакет. Most estimates place the number of insurgents killed at around 1,  to 1,  with some estimations as high as over 2, killed. Вам также могут понравиться. Retrieved 8 July One report states that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, createdinternally displaced persons who are Album) living elsewhere in Iraq.
Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve 4 April to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April , Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population was ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city. Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September , a senior U. Before beginning their attack, U. In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers.
American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack. Marine and U. The strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U. By November, it was estimated that the numbers had doubled. Fallujah was occupied by virtually every insurgent group in Iraq: An estimated 2, insurgents were from the Army of Mohammed made up of ex Fedayeen Saddam fighters , Ansar al-Sunna and various smaller Iraqi groups.
The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building. They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance.
Anticipating U. Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that coalition forces would encounter Chechen , Filipino , Saudi , Libyan, and Syrian combatants, as well as native Iraqis.
Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U. The same unit, operating under the command of the U.
The Air Force also employed MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles for reconnaissance and precision strikes, and the U-2 Dragon Lady high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft for intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance before, during, and after the battle.
Once aligned with reconnaissance elements, the assault began in the early hours of 8 November , preceded by an intense artillery barrage firing some mm projectiles and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station, which was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Seabees used armored bulldozers to plow the streets while remaining safe and protected from enemy fire.
Shortly after nightfall on 9 November , Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city. While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November , U. Marines and Special Operations Forces continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city.
By 16 November , after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December By late January , news reports indicated U. Three other Marines were awarded the Navy Cross: Corporal Esquibel refused the award, citing "personal reasons.
The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War. Most estimates place the number of insurgents killed at around 1,  to 1,,  with some estimations as high as over 2, killed. The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5, high-explosive mm artillery rounds during the battle. Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting.
Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50, buildings in Fallujah, between 7, and 10, were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage. While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been ,—, One report states that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, created , internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq.
In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wore their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Nevertheless, the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U. Some of the nonlocal insurgents, along with Zarqawi, were believed to have fled before the military assault, leaving mostly local militants behind.
Subsequent U. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi. After the U. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.
A third push was mounted from September and lasted until mid-January Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area, led to what became known as " the Great Sunni Awakening.
Despite the Coalition success, the battle was not without controversy. According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons , white phosphorus is permitted under the Chemical Weapons Convention if it is used to illuminate a battlefield or to produce smoke. But white phosphorus is a banned chemical weapon if its toxic and caustic properties are used intentionally.
The use of phosphorus was especially controversial in the United Kingdom because British forces were involved in the battle. British law prohibits British forces being present in a theatre in which phosphorus is used as an anti-personnel weapon, whether or not the targets are military personnel. Marine killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. Music CDs. Нет оценок или отзывов. Напишите отзыв первым. Наиболее популярные в Компакт-диски Показать все. Greatest Hits, Vols.
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Capitol Records CDs Earth. Capitol Records CDs America. Capitol Records CDs Heart. Этот товар не должен находиться на этой странице. In preparation for his invasion, Hulagu raised a large expeditionary force, conscripting one out of every ten military-age males in the entirety of the Mongol Empire , assembling what may have been the most numerous Mongol army to have existed and, by one estimate, , strong.
Hulagu led his army first to Iran, where he successfully campaigned against the Lurs , the Bukhara , and the remnants of the Khwarezm-Shah dynasty. Though Assassins failed in both attempts, Hulagu marched his army to their stronghold of Alamut , which he captured.
By January 11 the Mongols were close to the city,  establishing themselves on both banks of the Tigris River so as to form a pincer around the city. The cavalry were decisively defeated by the Mongols, whose sappers breached dikes along the Tigris River and flooded the ground behind the Abbasid forces, trapping them.
However, hastily assembled these troops were poorly equipped and poorly disciplined. Although the caliph technically had the authority to summon soldiers from other Muslim empires to defend his realm, he either neglected to do so or lacked the ability to.
His taunting opposition had lost him the loyalty of the Mamluks, and the Syrian emirs, who he supported, were busy preparing their own defenses. On January 29, the Mongol army began its siege of Baghdad, constructing a palisade and a ditch around the city.
Many historical accounts detailed the cruelties of the Mongol conquerors. Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries and only gradually recovered some of its former glory. The Mongols looted and then destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals.
The House of Wisdom the Grand Library of Baghdad , containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river and red from the blood of the scientists and philosophers killed.
Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who killed in abundance, sparing neither women nor children. Martin Sicker writes that close to 90, people may have died. Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand. Ian Frazier of The New Yorker says estimates of the death toll have ranged from , to a million. According to most accounts, the caliph was killed by trampling.
The Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth would be offended if it were touched by royal blood.
The historian David Morgan has quoted Wassaf describing the destruction: Those hiding behind the veils of the great Harem were dragged Some [ who? Canals were cut as a military tactic and never repaired. So many people died or fled that neither the labour nor the organization were sufficient to maintain the canal system.
It broke down or silted up. Other historians point to soil salination as the primary cause for the decline in agriculture. Hulagu left 3, Mongol soldiers behind to rebuild Baghdad. Initially, the fall of Baghdad came as a shock to the whole Muslim world, but the city became an economic center where international trade, the minting of coins and religious affairs flourished under the Ilkhans.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mongol invasions and conquests. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources:
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