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As a group, these diseases came to be known as the four big pollution diseases of Japan. Ina similar process was used for the Hiller talking clock. In Septembera new model was installed, using 3mm tape with a recording time of 32 minutes. During fast winding operations the pinch roller is disengaged and the take up reel motor is supplied with a higher voltage than the supply motor. The fishing cooperative protested against Chisso and angrily forced their way into the factory on 6 August and 12 August, demanding compensation. Fire Tablets.
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With multi-room music, you can play music on compatible Echo devices in different rooms. Echo can also play Audible audiobooks, radio stations, news briefs, and more. You can also use your voice to adjust equalizer settings or pair with another Echo 2nd Gen for stereo sound. Call and message almost anyone hands-free. Instantly drop in on other rooms in your home or make an announcement to every room with a compatible Echo device. Nevertheless, the government announcement brought a feeling of relief to a great many victims and their families.
Many felt vindicated in their long struggle to force Chisso to accept responsibility for causing the disease and expressed thanks that their plight had been recognised by their social superiors.
The struggle now focused on to what extent the victims should be compensated. In light of the government announcement, the patients of the Mutual Aid Society decided to ask for a new compensation agreement with Chisso and submitted the demand on the 6th of October.
The company replied that it was unable to judge what would be fair compensation and asked the national government to set up a binding arbitration committee to decide. At a meeting on the 5th of April , the opposing views within the society could not be reconciled and the organisation split into the arbitration group who were willing to accept binding arbitration and the litigation group who decided to sue the company.
That summer, Chisso sent gifts to the families who opted for arbitration rather than litigation. An arbitration committee was duly set up by the Ministry of Health and Welfare on 25 April, but it took almost a year to draw up a draft compensation plan. The arbitration group were dismayed by the sums on offer. They petitioned the committee, together with patients and supporters of the litigation group, for a fairer deal. The arbitration committee announced their compensation plan on 25 May in a disorderly session at the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Tokyo.
Thirteen protesters were arrested. Instead of accepting the agreement as they had promised, the arbitration group asked for increases. The committee was forced to revise its plan and the patients waited inside the ministry building for two days while they did so. The final agreement was signed on 27 May. One of the Chisso trade unions held an eight-hour strike in protest at the poor treatment of the arbitration group by their own company.
The litigation group, representing 41 certified patients 17 already deceased in 28 families, submitted their suit against Chisso in the Kumamoto District Court on 14 June One woman was visited personally by a Chisso executive and harassed by her neighbours. The Kumamoto branch, in particular, was especially helpful to the case.
In September , they set up a Trial Research Group, which included law professors, medical researchers including Masazumi Harada , sociologists and even the housewife and poet Michiko Ishimure to provide useful material to the lawyers to improve their legal arguments.
In fact, their report, Corporate Responsibility for Minamata Disease: The trial lasted almost four years. Three main legal points had to be overcome to win the case. The extensive research by Kumamoto University and the government conclusion meant that this point was proved quite easily. Second, could and should the company have anticipated the effect of its wastewater and should it have taken steps to prevent the tragedy i. Third, was the "sympathy money" agreement of , which forbade the patients from claiming any further compensation, a legally binding contract?
The trial heard from patients and their families, but the most important testimony came from Chisso executives and employees. The most dramatic testimony came from Hajime Hosokawa, who spoke on 4 July from his hospital bed where he was dying of cancer. He explained his experiments with cats, including the infamous "cat ", which developed Minamata disease after being fed factory wastewater.
He also spoke of his opposition to the change in wastewater output route from Hyakken Harbour to Minamata River. His testimony was backed up by a colleague who also told how company officials had ordered them to halt their cat experiments in the autumn of Hajime Hosokawa died three months after giving his testimony.
Former factory manager Eiichi Nishida admitted that the company put profits ahead of safety, resulting in dangerous working conditions and a lack of care with mercury. Former Chisso President Kiichi Yoshioka admitted that the company promoted a theory of dumped World War II explosives, though it knew it to be unfounded. The verdict handed down on 20 March represented a complete victory for the patients of the litigation group:.
The defendant could have prevented the occurrence of Minamata disease or at least have kept it at a minimum. We cannot find that the defendant took any of the precautionary measures called for in this situation whatsoever. The presumption that the defendant had been negligent from beginning to end in discharging wastewater from its acetaldehyde plant is amply supported.
The defendant cannot escape liability for negligence. While the struggles of the arbitration and litigation groups against Chisso were continuing, a new group of Minamata disease sufferers emerged. To qualify for compensation under the agreement, patients had to be officially recognised by various ad hoc certification committees according to their symptoms.
However, in an effort to limit the liability and financial burden on the company, these committees were sticking to a rigid interpretation of Minamata disease. They required that patients must exhibit all symptoms of Hunter-Russell syndrome — the standard diagnosis of organic mercury poisoning at the time — which originated from an industrial accident in the United Kingdom in The committee certified only patients exhibiting explicit symptoms of the British syndrome, rather than basing their diagnosis on the disease in Japan.
This resulted in many applicants being rejected by the committee, leaving them confused and frustrated. As of March , 2, victims had been officially certified 1, of whom have died  and over 10, people had received financial compensation from Chisso,  although they were not recognised as official victims. The issue of quantifying the impact of Minamata disease is complicated, as a full epidemiological study has never been conducted and patients were recognised only if they voluntarily applied to a certification council to seek financial compensation.
Some people feared the disease to be contagious, and many local people were fiercely loyal to Chisso, depending on the company for their livelihoods. In this atmosphere, sufferers were reluctant to come forward and seek certification. Despite these factors, over 17, people have applied to the council for certification. Also, in recognising an applicant as a Minamata disease sufferer, the certification council qualified that patient to receive financial compensation from Chisso.
For that reason, the council has always been under immense pressure to reject claimants and minimise the financial burden placed on Chisso. Rather than being a council of medical recognition, the decisions of the council were always affected by the economic and political factors surrounding Minamata and the Chisso corporation. Furthermore, compensation of the victims led to continued strife in the community, including unfounded accusations that some of the people who sought compensation did not actually suffer from the disease.
According to Timothy S. George , the environmental protests that surrounded the disease appeared to aid in the democratization of Japan. Instead, the afflicted were ostracised from their community due to ignorance about the disease, as people were afraid that it was contagious. The people directly impacted by the pollution of Minamata Bay were not originally allowed to participate in actions that would affect their future.
Disease victims, fishing families, and company employees were excluded from the debate. Progress occurred when Minamata victims were finally allowed to come to a meeting to discuss the issue. As a result, postwar Japan took a small step toward democracy. Through the evolution of public sentiments, the victims and environmental protesters were able to acquire standing and proceed more effectively in their cause. The involvement of the press also aided the process of democratization because it caused more people to become aware of the facts of Minamata disease and the pollution that caused it.
Although the environmental protests did result in Japan becoming more democratized, it did not completely rid Japan of the system that first suppressed the fishermen and victims of Minamata disease.
Akiyoshi used Japanese vocalists to sing the Japanese lyrics of a tone poem that were part of the composition. Photographic documentation of Minamata started in the early s. Recently I found us a bunch of Colombian singles. Hello and good morning on this Easterday. Winter or spring, we play tropical music all year round so that makes no difference.
This supergroup had relations with the most fantastic artists. Thought you would like some good weather music. The 8-track tape standard, promoted by Bill Lear in the early s, popularized consumer audio playback in automobiles.
Eventually, this standard was replaced by the smaller and more reliable Compact Cassette. In , the Compact Cassette was the dominant format in mass-market recorded music. Since their first introduction, analog tape recorders have experienced a long series of progressive developments resulting in increased sound quality, convenience, and versatility.
Electric current flowing in the coils of the tape head creates a fluctuating magnetic field. This causes the magnetic material on the tape, which is moving past and in contact with the head, to align in a manner proportional to the original signal. The signal can be reproduced by running the tape back across the tape head, where the reverse process occurs — the magnetic imprint on the tape induces a small current in the read head which approximates the original signal and is then amplified for playback.
Many tape recorders are capable of recording and playing back at once by means of separate record and playback heads in line or combined in one unit.
Modern professional recorders usually use a three-motor scheme. One motor with a constant rotational speed drives the capstan. This, usually combined with a rubber pinch roller, ensures that the tape speed does not fluctuate. During fast winding operations the pinch roller is disengaged and the take up reel motor is supplied with a higher voltage than the supply motor.
The cheapest models use a single motor for all required functions; the motor drives the capstan directly and the supply and take-up reels are loosely coupled to the capstan motor with slipping belts or clutches. There are also variants with two motors, in which one motor is used for rewinding only. The storage of an analogue signal on tape works well, but is not perfect.
In particular, the granular nature of the magnetic material adds high-frequency noise to the signal, generally referred to as tape hiss. Also, the magnetic characteristics of tape are not linear. They exhibit a characteristic hysteresis curve, which causes unwanted distortion of the signal. Some of this distortion is overcome by using an inaudible high-frequency AC bias signal when recording, though the amount of bias needs careful adjustment for best results.
Different tape material requires differing amounts of bias, which is why most recorders have a switch to select this or, in a cassette recorder, switch automatically based on cutouts in the cassette shell. Variations in tape speed cause flutter , which can be reduced by using dual capstans. Higher speeds used in professional recorders are prone to cause "head bumps," which are fluctuations in low-frequency response.
There are a wide variety of tape recorders in existence, from small hand-held devices to large multitrack machines. A machine with built-in speakers and audio power amplification to drive them is usually called a "tape recorder" or — if it has no record functionality — a "tape player," while one that requires external amplification for playback is usually called a "tape deck" regardless of whether it can record.
Multitrack technology enabled the development of modern art music and one such artist, Brian Eno , described the tape recorder as "an automatic musical collage device".
Magnetic tape brought about sweeping changes in both radio and the recording industry. Sound could be recorded, erased and re-recorded on the same tape many times, sounds could be duplicated from tape to tape with only minor loss of quality, and recordings could now be very precisely edited by physically cutting the tape and rejoining it.
In August , Los Angeles-based Capitol Records became the first recording company to use the new process. Within a few years of the introduction of the first commercial tape recorder, the Ampex model, launched in , American musician-inventor Les Paul had invented the first multitrack tape recorder , bringing about another technical revolution in the recording industry. Tape enabled the radio industry for the first time to pre-record many sections of program content such as advertising, which formerly had to be presented live, and it also enabled the creation and duplication of complex, high-fidelity, long-duration recordings of entire programs.
It also, for the first time, allowed broadcasters, regulators and other interested parties to undertake comprehensive logging of radio broadcasts for legislative and commercial purposes, leading to the growth of the modern media monitoring industry. Innovations, like multitrack recording and tape echo , enabled radio programs and advertisements to be pre-produced to a level of complexity and sophistication that was previously unattainable and tape also led to significant changes to the pacing of program content, thanks to the introduction of the endless-loop tape cartridge.
While they are primarily used for sound recording , tape machines were also important for data storage before the advent of floppy disks and CDs , and are still used today, although primarily to provide an offline backup to hard disk drives.
By providing a range of tape speeds, users can trade-off recording time against signal quality with higher tape speeds providing greater frequency response.
There are many tape speeds which are in use in all sorts of tape recorders. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about machines used for audio sound recording.
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