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Each perpetrator then got off the train and exited the station to meet his accomplice with a car. Archived from the original on 23 October Dog Ear Publishing. Keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people";  and in May during a visit to Poland where he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor". By Kamiyacho Stationthe next stop, the passengers in the car had begun panicking. A Strong Moral Vision".
He told them to be good, not to compromise themselves, to stick by one another, to be fearless, and that God is the only source of goodness, the only standard of conduct.
We want God! Had the Pope chosen to turn his soft power into the hard variety, the regime might have been drowned in blood. Instead, the Pope simply led the Polish people to desert their rulers by affirming solidarity with one another. The Communists managed to hold on as despots a decade longer.
But as political leaders, they were finished. When Pope John Paul II kissed the ground at the Warsaw airport he began the process by which Communism in Poland—and ultimately elsewhere in Europe—would come to an end.
On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the Solidarity organisation. Catholicism portal. As pope, John Paul II wrote 14 papal encyclicals and taught about sexuality in what is referred as the " Theology of the Body ".
Some key elements of his strategy to "reposition the Catholic Church" were encyclicals such as Ecclesia de Eucharistia , Reconciliatio et paenitentia and Redemptoris Mater. In his At the beginning of the new millennium Novo Millennio Ineunte , he emphasised the importance of "starting afresh from Christ": He warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and scepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself".
In Fides et Ratio On the Relationship between Faith and Reason John Paul promoted a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit of truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources such as Thomism , he described the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason , and emphasised that theologians should focus on that relationship.
John Paul II wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals: Laborem exercens , Sollicitudo rei socialis , and Centesimus annus. Through his encyclicals and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations, John Paul II talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of humanity.
Though critics accused him of inflexibility in explicitly re-asserting Catholic moral teachings against abortion and euthanasia that have been in place for well over a thousand years, he urged a more nuanced view of capital punishment.
John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to human sexual reproduction and the ordination of women. While he was visiting the United States in , the year before becoming pope, Wojtyla said: A series of lectures given by John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September and November were later compiled and published as a single work titled Theology of the Body , an extended meditation on human sexuality.
He extended it to the condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all capital punishment ,  calling them all a part of a struggle between a " culture of life " and a "culture of death". Pope John Paul II, who was present and very influential at the —65 Second Vatican Council , affirmed the teachings of that Council and did much to implement them.
Nevertheless, his critics often wished that he would embrace the so-called "progressive" agenda that some hoped would evolve as a result of the Council. In fact, the Council did not advocate "progressive" changes in these areas; for example, they still condemned abortion as an unspeakable crime. This was also deemed a repudiation of calls to break with the constant tradition of the Church by ordaining women to the priesthood.
In , while visiting the Netherlands , he gave an impassioned speech condemning apartheid at the International Court of Justice , proclaiming that "No system of apartheid or separate development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races. Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of the death penalty , although previous popes had accepted the practice.
At a papal mass in St. Louis, Missouri , in the United States he said:. A sign of hope is the increasing recognition that the dignity of human life must never be taken away, even in the case of someone who has done great evil. Modern society has the means of protecting itself, without definitively denying criminals the chance to reform.
I renew the appeal I made most recently at Christmas for a consensus to end the death penalty, which is both cruel and unnecessary.
Mease to life imprisonment without parole. At that time, Guatemala was one of only two countries in Latin America the other being Cuba to apply capital punishment. In his apostolic exhortation Ecclesia in Europa , John Paul II wrote that he "fully respected the secular nature of European institutions".
However, he wanted the EU Constitution to enshrine religious rights, including acknowledging the rights of religious groups to organise freely, recognise the specific identity of each denomination and allow for a "structured dialogue" between each religious community and the EU, and extend across the European Union the legal status enjoyed by religious institutions in individual member states.
I know that there are many in opposition to integration. I appreciate their concern about maintaining the cultural and religious identity of our nation. However, I must emphasise that Poland has always been an important part of Europe. Europe needs Poland. Poland needs Europe. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favour of this theory.
Although generally accepting the theory of evolution, John Paul II made one major exception—the human soul. War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity. Bush , the American President , to express opposition to the war.
John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law.
In , during a pilgrimage to Agrigento , Sicily , he appealed to the Mafiosi: One day, the judgment of God will arrive! Throughout the conflict, he appealed to the international community to stop the war, and after it was over led diplomatic initiatives to negotiate peace in the Middle East. No, never again war, which destroys the lives of innocent people, teaches how to kill, throws into upheaval even the lives of those who do the killing and leaves behind a trail of resentment and hatred, thus making it all the more difficult to find a just solution of the very problems which provoked the war.
John Paul II was the first world leader to describe as genocide the massacre by Hutus of Tutsis in the mostly Catholic country of Rwanda, which started in and reached its height in He called for a ceasefire and condemned the massacres on 10 April and 15 May He told Rwandan and Burundian refugees that he "was close to them and shared their immense pain". He said:. What is happening in your countries is a terrible tragedy that must end.
During the African Synod, we, the pastors of the church, felt the duty to express our consternation and to launch an appeal for forgiveness and reconciliation. This is the only way to dissipate the threats of ethnocentrism that are hovering over Africa these days and that have so brutally touched Rwanda and Burundi. In the book, as quoted by Reuters , he wrote: Corpus Juris Canonici. Collections of ancient canons. Holy Orders. By the publication of this Code, the canonical ordering of the whole Church is thus at length completed, following as it does It entered into force the first Sunday of the following Advent ,  which was 27 November It is divided into 30 titles and has a total of canons.
It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the Roman Curia. Pastor Bonus laid out in considerable detail the organisation of the Roman Curia, specifying precisely the names and composition of each dicastery, and enumerating the competencies of each dicastery. He declared the publication to be "a sure norm for teaching the faith … a sure and authentic reference text for teaching Catholic doctrine and particularly for preparing local catechisms".
It was "meant to encourage and assist in the writing of new local catechisms [both applicable and faithful]" rather than replacing them. Pope John Paul II has been credited with inspiring political change that not only led to the collapse of Communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Eastern Europe, but also in many countries ruled by dictators. In Poland, everything began. Not in East Germany or Czechoslovakia. Then the whole thing spread. Why in did they lead the way in Gdansk?
Why did they decide, now or never? Only because there was a Polish pope. He was in Chile and Pinochet was out. He was in Haiti and Duvalier was out. He was in the Philippines and Marcos was out. On many of those occasions, people would come here to the Vatican thanking the Holy Father for changing things. In the words of The New York Times , he used "unusually strong language" to criticise Pinochet and asserted to journalists that the Church in Chile must not only pray, but actively fight for the restoration of democracy in Chile.
The pope confided to a friend: For instance, he hugged and kissed Carmen Gloria Quintana , a young student who had been nearly burned to death by Chilean police and told her that "We must pray for peace and justice in Chile.
Never again will anyone be able to say that we are interfering in politics when we defend human dignity. Tucci claims that the pontiff was "furious". Yours is a beautiful country, rich in human resources, but Christians cannot be unaware of the injustice, the excessive inequality, the degradation of the quality of life, the misery, the hunger, the fear suffered by the majority of the people.
John Paul II spoke in French and occasionally in Creole, and in the homily outlined the basic human rights that most Haitians lacked: In response to the visit, Catholic priests and Church workers signed a statement committing the Church to work on behalf of the poor.
Politics has a fundamental ethical dimension because it is first and foremost a service to man. The Church can and must remind men—and in particular those who govern—of their ethical duties for the good of the whole of society. Later, during a Mass, Pope John Paul II criticised the regime for impoverishing the peasants and the unemployed, claiming that the government must give people greater access to the land.
Although Stroessner tried to prevent him from doing so, Pope John Paul II met opposition leaders in the one-party state. By the late s the dissolution of the Soviet Union was widely predicted.
Nobody knew how to get rid of Communism. In Warsaw , in , he simply said: In President Ronald Reagan opened diplomatic relations with the Vatican for the first time since In sharp contrast to the long history of strong domestic opposition, this time there was very little opposition from Congress, the courts, and Protestant groups.
Perhaps most surprisingly, the papers show that, as late as , the pope did not believe the Communist Polish government could be changed. No one can prove conclusively that he was a primary cause of the end of communism. I would argue the historical case in three steps: The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised "this son of Poland" whose "principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny". At the World Day of Prayer for Peace , held in Assisi on 27 October , more than representatives of different religions and denominations spent a day of fasting and prayer.
He says:. Is there, perhaps, in this veneration of ancestors a kind of preparation for the Christian faith in the Communion of Saints, in which all believers—whether living or dead—form a single community, a single body? In , the pope visited the African country of Togo , where 60 per cent of the population espouses animist beliefs. John Paul II proceeded to call for the need for religious tolerance, praised nature, and emphasised common elements between animism and Christianity, saying:.
Nature, exuberant and splendid in this area of forests and lakes, impregnates spirits and hearts with its mystery and orients them spontaneously toward the mystery of He who is the author of life. It is this religious sentiment that animates you and one can say that animates all of your compatriots. Meanwhile, the pope gave Karekin the relics of St. Gregory the Illuminator , the first head of the Armenian Church that had been kept in Naples , Italy , for years.
Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in Yerevan. The two Church leaders signed a declaration remembering the victims of the Armenian genocide. The two men held many similar views and understood similar plights, both coming from nations affected by Communism and both serving as heads of major religious bodies. In particular I express my highest regard for the followers of Buddhism, the majority religion in Sri Lanka, with its … four great values of … loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity; with its ten transcendental virtues and the joys of the Sangha expressed so beautifully in the Theragathas.
To everyone I extend the hand of friendship, recalling the splendid words of the Dhammapada: This was the first time a pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as in Euntes in mundum , "Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them.
Christodoulos read a list of "13 offences" of the Catholic Church against the Eastern Orthodox Church since the Great Schism,  including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in , and bemoaned the lack of apology from the Catholic Church, saying "Until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon" for the "maniacal crusaders of the 13th century".
The pope responded by saying "For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness", to which Christodoulos immediately applauded.
We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion. The pope had said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He attempted to solve the problems that had arisen over centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, and in gave them a copy of the lost icon of Our Lady of Kazan.
On 6 May , he became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in a mosque, namely the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus , Syria. Respectfully removing his shoes, he entered the former Byzantine era Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist , who is also revered as a prophet of Islam.
He gave a speech including the statement: He praised Mohandas Gandhi for his "unshakeable faith in God", assured the Jains that the Catholic Church will continue to engage in dialogue with their religion and spoke of the common need to aid the poor.
In , he issued We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah , which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust. It was beyond history, beyond memory. We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.
He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church. With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion.
You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers. In an interview with the Polish Press Agency, Michael Schudrich , chief rabbi of Poland, said that never in history did anyone do as much for Christian-Jewish dialogue as Pope John Paul II, adding that many Jews had a greater respect for the late pope than for some rabbis.
Schudrich praised John Paul II for condemning anti-Semitism as a sin, which no previous pope had done. In the stormy history of relations between Roman popes and Jews in the ghetto in which they were closed for over three centuries in humiliating circumstances, John Paul II is a bright figure in his uniqueness. In relations between our two great religions in the new century that was stained with bloody wars and the plague of racism, the heritage of John Paul II remains one of the few spiritual islands guaranteeing survival and human progress.
In Mainz , he met with leaders of the Evangelical Church in Germany , and with representatives of other Christian denominations. In addition to celebrating Mass with Catholic believers, he participated in ecumenical services at places that had been Catholic shrines before the Reformation: Nidaros Cathedral in Norway; near St.
The signing was a fruit of a theological dialogue that had been going on between the LWF and the Vatican since As he entered St. On the way to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Even though the two bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta , he lost nearly three-quarters of his blood.
He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his wounds. Could I forget that the event in St. For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.
He was sentenced to life imprisonment. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust. Numerous other theories were advanced to explain the assassination attempt, some of them controversial.
On 15 January a suicide bomber was planning to dress as a priest and detonate a bomb when the pope passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City.
The assassination was supposed to divert attention from the next phase of the operation. In John Koehler, a journalist and former army intelligence officer, published Spies in the Vatican: There is wide speculation that they were, in reality, KGB agents. John Paul II apologised to many groups that had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years. As pope, he officially made public apologies for over wrongdoings, including: On 20 November , from a laptop in the Vatican, Pope John Paul II sent his first e-mail apologising for the Catholic sex abuse cases , the Church-backed " Stolen Generations " of Aboriginal children in Australia, and to China for the behaviour of Catholic missionaries in colonial times.
When he became pope in at the age of 58, John Paul II was an avid sportsman. He was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens , weight training, swimming, and hiking in the mountains. He was fond of football. The only modern pope with a fitness regimen had been Pope Pius XI — , who was an avid mountaineer. Despite difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, trouble hearing , and severe osteoarthrosis , he continued to tour the world although rarely walking in public.
Pope John Paul II was hospitalised with breathing problems caused by a bout of influenza on 1 February On 31 March , following a urinary tract infection ,  he developed septic shock , a form of infection with a high fever and low blood pressure , but was not hospitalised. Instead, he was monitored by a team of consultants at his private residence. This was taken as an indication by the pope, and those close to him, that he was nearing death; it would have been in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican.
The day before his death, one of his closest personal friends, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka visited him at his bedside. Tens of thousands of people assembled and held vigil in St. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: On Saturday, 2 April , at approximately Present at the bedside was a cardinal from Ukraine, who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal household.
Pope John Paul II died in his private apartment at The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Requiem Mass held on 8 April was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral.
List of Dignitaries. It was the single largest gathering of heads of state in history, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill and Josip Broz Tito Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended alongside the faithful.
Upon the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen    began referring to the late pontiff as "John Paul the Great" — in theory only the fourth pope to be so acclaimed. Scholars of canon law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title simply establishes itself through popular and continued usage,    as was the case with celebrated secular leaders for example, Alexander III of Macedon became popularly known as Alexander the Great.
Keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people";  and in May during a visit to Poland where he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor".
Inspired by calls of "Santo Subito! In early , it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. During his homily , he encouraged prayers for the early canonisation of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonisation would happen "in the near future". On leaving St. Once the second decree is signed, the positio the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and writings and with information on the cause is complete.
As Monsignor Oder noted, this course would have been possible if the second decree were signed in time by Benedict XVI, stating that a posthumous miracle directly attributable to his intercession had occurred, completing the positio. Sebastian , where Pope Innocent XI was buried.
The documentation has been sent to the Vatican office for sainthood causes. To be eligible for canonisation being declared a saint by the Catholic Church, two miracles must be attributed to a candidate. According to an article on the Catholic News Service CNS dated 23 April , a Vatican commission of doctors concluded that a healing had no natural medical explanation, which is the first requirement for a claimed miracle to be officially documented.
About cardinals and bishops concelebrated the Mass, and at least , people attended the Mass, with an estimated , others watching from video screens placed around Rome. John Paul II was widely criticised for a variety of his views, including his opposition to the ordination of women and use of contraception ,   his support for the Second Vatican Council and its reform of the liturgy , and his response to child sexual abuse within the Church.
John Paul II was criticised by representatives of the victims of clergy sexual abuse  for failing to respond quickly enough to the Catholic sex abuse crisis. In his response, he stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young. He asked them to "diligently investigate accusations". John Paul II suggested that American bishops be more open and transparent in dealing with such scandals and emphasised the role of seminary training to prevent sexual deviance among future priests.
In what The New York Times called "unusually direct language", John Paul condemned the arrogance of priests that led to the scandals:.
Popular contemporary novelist Haruki Murakami wrote Underground: He was critical of the Japanese media for focusing on the sensational profiles of the attackers and ignoring the lives of the victimized average citizens. The book contains extensive interviews with the survivors in order to tell their stories.
Shortly after the attack, Aum lost its status as a religious organization, and many of its assets were seized. The Diet Japanese parliament rejected a request from government officials to outlaw the group. The National Public Safety Commission received increased funding to monitor the group. In , the Diet gave the commission broad powers to monitor and curtail the activities of groups that have been involved in "indiscriminate mass murder" and whose leaders are "holding strong sway over their members", a bill custom-tailored to Aum Shinrikyo.
Asahara was sentenced to death by hanging on 27 February , but lawyers immediately appealed the ruling. The Tokyo High Court postponed its decision on the appeal until results were obtained from a court-ordered psychiatric evaluation, which was issued to determine whether Asahara was fit to stand trial. In February , the court ruled that Asahara was indeed fit to stand trial, and on 27 March , rejected the appeal against his death sentence.
Two re-trial appeals were declined by the appellate court. Japan does not announce dates of executions, which are by hanging, in advance of them being carried out. On 6 July , the Ministry of Justice announced that Asahara had been executed that morning   with six others of those principally involved. As a result, among a total of members indicted, 13 were sentenced to death, five were sentenced to life in prison, 80 were given prison sentences of various lengths, 87 received suspended sentences, two were fined, and one was found not guilty.
In May and June , the last two of the fugitives wanted in connection with the attack were arrested in the Tokyo and Kanagawa area. Asahara and twelve other Aum cultists were finally executed by hanging in July, , after all appeals were exhausted. The group reportedly still has about 2, members, and continues to recruit new members under the name "Aleph" as well as other names.
Members operate several businesses, though boycotts of known Aleph-related businesses, in addition to searches, confiscations of possible evidence and picketing by protest groups, have resulted in closures. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. Japanese act of domestic terrorism.
Kasumigaseki Station , one of the many stations affected during the attack. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: This section needs additional citations for verification. Main article: Matsumoto sarin attack. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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July Ikuo Hayashi. Tokyo portal Terrorism portal s portal. Smithson and Leslie-Anne Levy October Henry L. Stimson Centre. Report No. Retrieved 15 December Gupta Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Academic Press. Retrieved 28 July A Clock That Has Stopped. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. The Daily Shimbun.
The Japan News. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Centre for a New American Security. Monterey Institute of International Studies. June The Re-Enchantment of the West: Continuum International Publishing Group. New York: Macmillan The War on Terrorism and the Terror of God. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Cults, Conspiracies, and Secret Societies: Random House. The Cult at the End of the World: Crown Publishing.
Recent events and responder implications" PDF. W Holy Terror: Armageddon in Tokyo. Assessing Threats and Responses. James J. McGraw-Hill, , pg. Retrieved 15 February Book Your Therapy. Therapy Locations. Fast Access To Therapy. Digital Online Therapy Service. Become an AUK Therapist.
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