Label: Fusion Records (5) - FUSION 251 Format: 4x, File MP3 320 kbps Country: Netherlands Genre: Electronic Style: Hardstyle
Seattle Post-Intelligencer. A high quality sound coding standard for broadcasting, telecommunications and multimedia systems. Implementers of the standard were supposed to devise their own algorithms suitable for removing parts of the information from the audio input. Main article: Smith, and Lawrence A. It is nonetheless ubiquitous and especially advantageous for low-bit rate human speech applications.
Therefore, comparison of decoders is usually based on how computationally efficient they are i. However, some encoders such as LAME can attach additional metadata that will allow players that can handle it to deliver seamless playback.
When performing lossy audio encoding, such as creating an MP3 data stream, there is a trade-off between the amount of data generated and the sound quality of the results. The person generating an MP3 selects a bit rate , which specifies how many kilobits per second of audio is desired. The higher the bit rate, the larger the MP3 data stream will be, and, generally, the closer it will sound to the original recording.
With too low a bit rate, compression artifacts i. Some audio is hard to compress because of its randomness and sharp attacks.
When this type of audio is compressed, artifacts such as ringing or pre-echo are usually heard. A sample of applause or a triangle instrument with a relatively low bit rate provide good examples of compression artifacts. Most subjective testings of perceptual codecs tend to avoid using these types of sound materials, however, the artifacts generated by percussive sounds are barely perceptible due to the specific temporal masking feature of the 32 sub-band filterbank of Layer II on which the format is based.
Besides the bit rate of an encoded piece of audio, the quality of MP3 encoded sound also depends on the quality of the encoder algorithm as well as the complexity of the signal being encoded. As the MP3 standard allows quite a bit of freedom with encoding algorithms, different encoders do feature quite different quality, even with identical bit rates. Quality is dependent on the choice of encoder and encoding parameters. This observation caused a revolution in audio encoding.
Early on bitrate was the prime and only consideration. At the time MP3 files were of the very simplest type: Using a constant bit rate makes encoding simpler and less CPU intensive. However, it is also possible to create files where the bit rate changes throughout the file. The concept behind them is that, in any piece of audio, some sections are easier to compress, such as silence or music containing only a few tones, while others will be more difficult to compress. So, the overall quality of the file may be increased by using a lower bit rate for the less complex passages and a higher one for the more complex parts.
With some advanced MP3 encoders, it is possible to specify a given quality, and the encoder will adjust the bit rate accordingly. Users that desire a particular "quality setting" that is transparent to their ears can use this value when encoding all of their music, and generally speaking not need to worry about performing personal listening tests on each piece of music to determine the correct bit rate.
Perceived quality can be influenced by listening environment ambient noise , listener attention, and listener training and in most cases by listener audio equipment such as sound cards, speakers and headphones.
Furthermore, sufficient quality may be achieved by a lesser quality setting for lectures and human speech applications and reduces encoding time and complexity. A test given to new students by Stanford University Music Professor Jonathan Berger showed that student preference for MP3-quality music has risen each year.
A detailed account of the techniques used to isolate the sounds deleted during MP3 compression, along with the conceptual motivation for the project, was published in the Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference. Bitrate is the product of the sample rate and number of bits per sample used to encode the music. CD audio is samples per second. The number of bits per sample also depends on the number of audio channels.
CD is stereo and 16 bits per channel. So, multiplying by 32 gives —the bitrate of uncompressed CD digital audio.
As less complex passages are detected by MP3 algorithms then lower bitrates may be employed. By lowering the sampling rate, MPEG-2 layer III removes all frequencies above half the new sampling rate that may have been present in the source audio.
This is easily accomplished using LAME version 3. For more info see Nyquist — Shannon. The n. A sample rate of A great variety of bit rates are used on the Internet. Uncompressed audio as stored on an audio-CD has a bit rate of 1, The software was only able to use a uniform bitrate on all frames in an MP3 file.
Later more sophisticated MP3 encoders were able to use the bit reservoir to target an average bit rate selecting the encoding rate for each frame based on the complexity of the sound in that portion of the recording. A more sophisticated MP3 encoder can produce variable bitrate audio.
The final file size of a VBR encoding is less predictable than with constant bitrate. Average bitrate is a type of VBR implemented as a compromise between the two: The ancillary data field can be used to store user defined data. The ancillary data is optional and the number of bits available is not explicitly given. The MP3 standards do not define tag formats for MP3 files, nor is there a standard container format that would support metadata and obviate the need for tags.
However, several de facto standards for tag formats exist. These tags are normally embedded at the beginning or end of MP3 files, separate from the actual MP3 frame data. MP3 decoders either extract information from the tags, or just treat them as ignorable, non-MP3 junk data. Aside from metadata pertaining to the audio content, tags may also be used for DRM. MP3Gain may be used to reversibly modify files based on ReplayGain measurements so that adjusted playback can be achieved on players without ReplayGain capability.
The basic MP3 decoding and encoding technology is patent-free in the European Union, all patents having expired there by at the latest.
In the United States, the technology became substantially patent-free on 16 April see below. MP3 patents expired in the US between and In the past, many organizations have claimed ownership of patents related to MP3 decoding or encoding.
These claims led to a number of legal threats and actions from a variety of sources. As a result, uncertainty about which patents must be licensed in order to create MP3 products without committing patent infringement in countries that allow software patents was a common feature of the early stages of adoption of the technology. An exception is the United States, where patents in force but filed prior to 8 June expire after the later of 17 years from the issue date or 20 years from the priority date.
A lengthy patent prosecution process may result in a patent issuing much later than normally expected see submarine patents. The various MP3-related patents expired on dates ranging from to in the United States. Patent 5,, , which had a PCT filing in October , expired. Patent 6,, , held  and administered by Technicolor ,  expired. As a result, many free and open-source software projects, such as the Fedora operating system , have decided to start shipping MP3 support by default, and users will no longer have to resort to installing unofficial packages maintained by third party software repositories for MP3 playback or encoding.
The letter claimed that unlicensed products "infringe the patent rights of Fraunhofer and Thomson. To make, sell or distribute products using the [MPEG Layer-3] standard and thus our patents, you need to obtain a license under these patents from us. Unofficially, compiled binaries were available from other sources. Sisvel S. Motorola followed soon after, and signed with Sisvel to license MP3-related patents in December The three exceptions are: Patent 5,, , expired February ; U.
Patent 5,, , expired February ; and U. Patent 5,, , expired 9 April The injunction was later reversed by a Berlin judge,  but that reversal was in turn blocked the same day by another judge from the same court, "bringing the Patent Wild West to Germany" in the words of one commentator.
Apple, Samsung, and Sandisk all settled the claims against them in January Microsoft for more information. Other lossy formats exist.
The Fraunhofer Society owns many of the basic patents underlying these formats as well, with others held by Alcatel-Lucent, and Thomson Consumer Electronics. Besides lossy compression methods, lossless formats are a significant alternative to MP3 because they provide unaltered audio content, though with an increased file size compared to lossy compression. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with MPEG For other uses, see MP3 disambiguation.
Main articles: ID3 and APEv2 tag. Comparison between MP3 and Vorbis. The first is uncompressed WAV file. Main article: List of codecs. Information technology portal. Fraunhofer IIS. Retrieved 18 July November Retrieved 7 December July February Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 14 July Proceedings of the IEEE. The Library of Congress. Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 1 November Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original PDF on 30 December Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 28 October London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. March December On a Psychoacoustical Equivalent of Tuning Curves. Communication and Cybernetics. Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 29 June Speech and Hearing in Communication. Acoustical Society of America. Dehery, et al. Bloomberg BusinessWeek.
Retrieved 24 July How Music Got Free: United States of America: Penguin Books. Brandenburg and Grill were joined by four other Fraunhofer researchers. In later years this group would refer to themselves as "the original six". The Meaning of a Format. Duke University Press. International Organization for Standardization. September Archived from the original on 14 February AES E-Library.
Retrieved 24 August Archived from the original on 6 August Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 24 January It enables MP3 to work satisfactorily at very low bitrates and introduces the additional sampling frequencies 8 kHz, Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 29 May Audio" ZIP.
Retrieved 4 August The Official Community of Suzanne Vega. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 8 August Software simulation". A high quality sound coding standard for broadcasting, telecommunications and multimedia systems. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science BV. Lots of Informative Information about Music.
Archived from the original on 4 July Retrieved 15 September Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 22 November Drama in Marketplace Evolution". Journal of Consumer Research. This sound file contains excerpts from an authentic call from the Pacific Northwest. She does that in the unedited, original version of the call.
In order to make the sound clip as compact as possible, everything extraneous has been removed. The clip only contains the parts of the conversation related to the appearance and behavior of the figure outside.
All other dialogue is either irrelevant or personal. This recording, and several others from the field, were collected over the past four decades by Ron Morehead California and Al Berry California. Their collections of recordings are available on CD We highly recommend them.
The Mississippi Howl is the second recording of this type. The rural area where the recording was made has had many sightings by local residents. You may recall the old "In Search Of.. A growing number of people in the BFRO have heard sounds similar to what you hear in the recording below. This recording was obtained in a remote part of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Ron Moorehead can be heard in the foreground shouting out to immitate one of the animals.
He tries to encourage the animal to continue making sounds. The woman speaking is Lorrie G. Lorrie is a keen observer of bodies in motion. She has also worked with surveillance teams for the sheriffs department. After the incident Lorrie described the figure she observed in greater detail. It was upright and very large. She could see the shape of its head, its shoulder, and clearly observed its large swinging arms as it walked up the road toward her. She watched one figure, but insisted there was more than one nearby.
During the incident Lorrie is encouraged to "try to talk to it". This should not be misinterpreted to mean she should try have a conversation with one.
Rather, it is a short-hand way of signaling her to do certain things, involving voice and gestures, that had been explained to her earlier in the trip.
There are several purposes for these actions. One purpose is to encourage the animals to approach closer. Other animals, such a bear, cougars, deer, etc. Sasquatches respond differently.
The act of gesturing and speaking in their direction sometimes provokes "Samurai Chatter" -- the speech-like vocalizations that are occassionally heard when these animals are nearby. Provoking this special class of vocalizations is one priority of every BFRO expedition. The suggestion of speech-like vocalizations will seem outlandish to some. Speech, as we know it, is something that humans assumed was unique to humans.
One of the important things this species genus? Humans are bipedal apes. Sasquatches are also bipedal apes. As bipeds, both humans and sasquatches had the potential to develop the anatomical structures in the neck, face and brain, capable of producing speech-like sounds. A priority for the BFRO now is to teach good people how to locate the habitats of these animals, and how to provoke these kinds of interactions.
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